Skip to main content
Log in

Advancing security and efficiency in MANET using dynamic algorithm switching

  • Published:
Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications Aims and scope Submit manuscript


MANET is widely utilized for interactions among devices without relying on a central governing body. The frequent changes in network topologies expose it to various security vulnerabilities. Enhancing security within MANET is of paramount concern and demands resolution. Addressing these security-related issues stands as the sole approach to ensuring proper data sharing in MANET. Numerous security-oriented techniques have been introduced, but they have encountered several challenges, leading to increased costs and time complexity. These difficulties have necessitated additional resources to be allocated towards mitigating issues and grappling with the growing complexity, thereby introducing a layer of complexity that can impede seamless implementation and efficacy. In this context, a Dynamic Algorithm Switching (DAS) algorithm is proposed to strengthen security in MANET. The process begins with Node clustering, followed by cluster formation through the implementation of the Modified Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications (DBSCAN). The proposed method incorporates Cluster Head selection (CHS), which in turn enhances energy efficiency within MANET. The effectiveness of the DAS method is evaluated through experimentation, measuring key aspects such as Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), end-to-end delay, throughput97.9, network lifetime, and energy consumption with the attained values 98.7%, 15.81mas, 97.9% 952 s as well as 11 J/s respectively. However the existing approaches such as ANFIS-EESC, QoSDSBS, EBR and IBADConBE achieved rate of PDR as 98.3%, 97.6%, 97.1% and 96.9% that diminished the performance. Comparative analysis demonstrates that the proposed method outperforms other techniques across all metrics, establishing its superior efficiency.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

Similar content being viewed by others

Data availability

Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no new data were created or analyzed in this study.

Code availability

Not applicable.


  1. Wang P, Zhou M, Ding Z (2021) A two-layer IP hopping-based moving target defense approach to enhancing the security of mobile ad-hoc networks. Sensors 21(7):2355.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Hai T, Zhou J, Lu Y, Jawawi D, Wang D, Onyema EM, Biamba C (2023) Enhanced security using multiple paths routine scheme in cloud-MANETs. J Cloud Comput 12(1):68.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bondada P, Samanta D, Kaur M, Lee HN (2022) Data security-based routing in MANETs using key management mechanism. Appl Sci 12(3):1041.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Li C, Dong M, Xin X, Li J, Chen XB, Ota K (2023) Efficient privacy-preserving in IoMT with blockchain and lightweight secret sharing. IEEE Internet Things J.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Chen P, Liu H, Xin R, Carval T, Zhao J, Xia Y, Zhao Z (2022) Effectively detecting operational anomalies in large-scale iot data infrastructures by using a gan-based predictive model. Comput J 65(11):2909–2925.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Korir F, Cheruiyot W (2022) A survey on security challenges in the current MANET routing protocols. Global J Eng Technol Adv 12(01):078–091

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Prabha CC, Sakkarapani K (2022) Four stage security algorithm for data transfer to improve security in MANET. ICTACT J Commun Technol 13(3):2731

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Laqtib S, El Yassini K, Hasnaoui ML (2020) A technical review and comparative analysis of machine learning techniques for intrusion detection systems in MANET. Int J Electr Comput Eng 10(3):2701

    Google Scholar 

  9. Singh NC, Sharma A (2020) Resilience of mobile ad hoc networks to security attacks and optimization of routing process. Mater Today: Proc 12:88–97

    Google Scholar 

  10. Shaik MS, Mira F (2020) A comprehensive mechanism of MANET network layer based security attack prevention. Int J Wirel Microw Technol (IJWMT)–2020 10(1):38–47

    Google Scholar 

  11. Liu C, Wu T, Li Z, Ma T, Huang J (2022) Robust online tensor completion for IoT streaming data recovery. IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Rajeshkumar G, Kumar MV, Kumar KS, Bhatia S, Mashat A, Dadheech P (2023) An improved multi-objective particle swarm optimization routing on MANET. Comput Syst Sci Eng 44(2):1187

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Anantapur M, Patil VC (2021) PUSR: position update secure routing protocol for MANET. Int J Intell Eng Syst 14(1):93

    Google Scholar 

  14. Fan W, Yang L, Bouguila N (2021) Unsupervised grouped axial data modeling via hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric models with Watson distributions. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 44(12):9654–9668.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Yao Y, Zhao J, Li Z, Cheng X, Wu L (2023) Jamming and eavesdropping defense scheme based on deep reinforcement learning in autonomous vehicle networks. IEEE Trans Inf Forensics Secur 18:1211–1224.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Sarbhukan VV, Ragha L (2020) Establishing secure routing path using trust to enhance security in MANET. Wirel Pers Commun 110(1):245–255.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Al-Shareeda MA, Manickam S (2022) Man-in-the-middle attacks in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs): analysis and evaluation. Symmetry 14(8):1543.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Amalingam R, Muniyan R, Dumka A, Singh DP, Mohamed HG, Singh R, Anand D, Noya ID (2022) Routing protocol for MANET based on QoS-aware service composition with dynamic secured broker selection. Electronics 11(17):2637.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Kancharakuntla D, El-Ocla H (2022) EBR: routing protocol to detect blackhole attacks in mobile ad hoc networks. Electronics 11(21):3480.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Rajeswari AR, Lai WC, Kavitha C, Balasubramanian PK, Srividhya SR (2023) A trust-based secure neuro fuzzy clustering technique for mobile ad hoc networks. Electronics 12(2):274.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Zhang R, Han W, Zhang L, Wang L, Meng X (2023) Provably secure receiver-unrestricted group key management scheme for mobile ad hoc networks. Sensors 23(9):4198.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Kalime S, Sagar K (2021) A review: secure routing protocols for mobile adhoc networks (MANETs). J Crit Rev 7:8385–8393

    Google Scholar 

  23. Qiao F, Li Z, Kong Y (2023) A privacy-aware and incremental defense method against GAN-based poisoning attack. IEEE Trans Comput Soc Syst.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Xuemin Z, Ying R, Zenggang X, Haitao D, Fang X, Yuan L (2023) Resource-constrained and socially selfish-based incentive algorithm for socially aware networks. J Sign Process Syst 95(12):1439–1453.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Xu H, Han S, Li X, Han Z (2023) Anomaly traffic detection based on communication-efficient federated learning in space-air-ground integration network. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun 99:1–1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Sudha MN, Balamurugan V, Lai WC, Divakarachari PB (2022) Sustainable multipath routing for improving cross-layer performance in MANET using an energy centric tunicate swarm algorithm. Sustainability 14(21):13925.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Ghaleb SAM, Vasanthi V (2020) Energy efficient multipath routing using multi-objective grey wolf optimizer based dynamic source routing algorithm for manet. Int J Adv Sci Technol 29(3):6096–6117

    Google Scholar 

  28. Wang WT, Wu YL, Tang CY, Hor MK (2015) Adaptive density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) according to data.In 2015 international conference on machine learning and cybernetics (ICMLC), vol 1. IEEE, pp 445–451.

  29. Rajan MS, Anusuya JADR (2020) Energy efficient cluster head selection in adhoc on demand multipath distance vector routing protocol. Int J Sci Technol Res 9(1). ISSN. 2277–8616

Download references


Not applicable.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



All authors agreed on the content of the study. MVA, AK, KS and SR collected all the data for analysis. MVA agreed on the methodology. MVA, AK, KS and SR completed the analysis based on agreed steps. Results and conclusions are discussed and written together. The author read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. Vijay Anand.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants.

Human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Anand, M.V., Krishnamurthy, A., Subramanian, K. et al. Advancing security and efficiency in MANET using dynamic algorithm switching. Peer-to-Peer Netw. Appl. (2024).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: