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Table 4 Some examples of formal verification-centric solutions

From: Blockchain smart contracts: Applications, challenges, and future trends

Publication Contribution Description
Amani et al. [2] Bytecode verifying method It aims at verifying smart contracts at the level of EVM bytecode using the Isabelle/HOL. This formal method is generic to all Ethereum smart contracts.
Bai et al. [10] Model checking method It is introduced based on formal methods to model smart contracts and verify their properties. Formal methods combined with smart contracts aim at reducing the potential errors and costs during the development process of smart contracts.
Osterland and Rose [73] Tool chain Tool chain aims at translating chain code modeled in Solidity via its operational semantics into a formal representation that can be formally analyzed for correct implementation via model checking.
Yang and Lei [109] FEther FEther is an extensible hybrid verification proof engine for Ethereum smart contract verification. Based on Lolisa, which is a large subset of solidity mechanized in Coq, FEther guarantees the consistency between smart contracts and its formal model.