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Table 10 Some examples of profit-centric solutions: Tracking-based

From: Blockchain smart contracts: Applications, challenges, and future trends

Publication Contribution Description
Baralla et al. [11] Supply chain system It is a generic agri-food supply chain traceability system based on blockchain technology implementing the “from-farm-to-fork” (F2F) model currently used in the European Union, which can integrate current traceability rules and processes.
Casado-Vara et al. [17] Supply chain model It is based on blockchain that aims at coordinating the tracking of food in the agriculture supply chain using smart contracts and a multi-agent system.
Dasaklis et al. [24] Granularity level framework It is a generic framework for defining granularity levels based on the product’s unique characteristics, supply chain processes, and stakeholders’ engagement by using smart contracts within a blockchain-enabled supply chain traceability architecture.
Hasan et al. [39] Supply chain management It is a blockchain-based solution for efficient supply chain management involving items shipped via smart containers. Smart contracts are used to manage shipment conditions, automate payments, legitimize receivers, and also issue a refund in case of violations to pre-defined conditions.
Islam and Kundu [43] IC Traceability method It is a method of integrated circuit (IC) supply chain traceability based on blockchain. Smart contracts allow supply chain participants to authenticate, track, trace, analyze, and provision chips throughout their entire life cycle.
Leng et al. [50] Makerchain Makerchain is a decentralized blockchain-driven model to handle the cyber-credit of social manufacturing among various makers. Smart contracts are used to automate the verification of the product life-cycle through a trail of historic events.
Lin et al. [53] Food Traceability system It is a trusted, self-organized, open, and ecological food traceability system based on blockchain and Internet of Things technologies.
Westerkamp et al. [102] Tracing manufacturing processes It is a system that allows for traceability of manufactured goods, including their components using tokens.
Xie et al. [105] QuarkChain QuarkChain is a blockchain-enabled interoperability framework and it has the reputation based Proof-of-Authority as a preliminary smart contract design for addressing challenges in biopharmaceutical supply chain management.
Xu et al. [108] originChain It is a blockchain-based traceability system that provides transparent tamper-proof traceability data with high availability and enables automated regulatory-compliance checking and adaptation in imported product traceability scenarios.