DPAS: A dynamic popularity-aware search mechanism for unstructured P2P systems

Abstract

One of the pivotal challenges of unstructured Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems is resource discovery. Search mechanisms generally utilize blind, or informed search strategies wherein nodes locally store metadata to quicken resource discovery time compared to blind search mechanisms. Dynamic behavior of P2P systems profoundly affects the performance of any deployed resource-searching mechanism and that of the whole system in turn. Therefore, efficient search mechanisms should be adaptable to the dynamic nature of P2P systems whose nodes frequently join and leave the system. Nonetheless, existing informed search mechanisms have failed to accord with dynamicity of P2P systems properly, thereby becoming inefficient. To address this issue, we put forth a new resource-searching mechanism called Dynamic Popularity-Aware Search mechanism (DPAS). Our mechanism estimates the dynamic responsiveness states of candidate nodes to direct search selection process by exploiting temporal number of hits, temporal penalty, and node heterogeneity. Besides, it controls the search scope at each step by estimating both the dynamic temporal popularity of resources and recently obtained results. It thus considers at each step of the search decision-making process to conform itself with the dynamics of P2P systems. Extensive experiments have demonstrated that DPAS has enhanced performance in comparison to other pertinent search mechanisms by virtue of an upsurge in the success-rate and decrease in the response time and bandwidth consumption.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.

Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. 1.

    Buford J, Yu H (2010) Peer-to-peer networking and applications: synopsis and research directions, Boston: Springer. FORMAT

  2. 2.

    Masood S, Shahid M, Sharif M (2018) Comparative analysis of peer to peer networks. International Journal of Advanced Networking and Applications (IJANA) 9(4):3477–3491

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Shojafar M, Abawajy J, Delkhah Z, Ahmadi A (2015) An efficient and distributed file search in unstructured peer-to-peer networks. Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications (PPNA) 8(1):120–136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Shamshirband S, Soleimani S (2018) LAAPS: an efficient file-based search in unstructured peer-to-peer networks using reinforcement algorithm. Int J Comput Appl:1–8

  5. 5.

    Schmidt C, Parashar M (2004) A peer-to-peer approach to web service discovery. World Wide Web (WWW) 7(2):211–229

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Ed-daoui I, Hami AE, Itmi M, Hmina N (2018) Unstructured peer-to-peer systems: towards swift routing. International Journal of Engineering & Technology (IJET) 7(2.3):33–36

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Asghari S, Navimipour N (2019) Resource discovery in the peer to peer networks using an inverted ant colony optimization algorithm. Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications (PPNA) 12(1):129–142

  8. 8.

    Zarrin J, Aguiar R, Barraca J (2018) Resource discovery for distributed computing systems: a comprehensive survey. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing (JPDC) 113(1):127–166

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Zhen-Wan Z, Peng K, Ren-Jie S (2015) A Survey of Resource Discovery in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks, in International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies, Gwalior, India

  10. 10.

    Sharifkhani F, Pakravan M (2013) A review of new advances in resource discovery approaches in unstructured P2P networks, in International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI), Mysore, India

  11. 11.

    Arunachalam A, Sornil O (2015) An Analysis of the Overhead and Energy Consumption in Flooding, Random Walk and Gossip Based Resource Discovery Protocols in MP2P Networks. In International Conference on Advanced Computing & Communication Technologies (ACCT), Haryana, India

  12. 12.

    Lazaro D, Marques J, Jorba J (2013) Decentralized resource discovery mechanisms for distributed computing in peer-to-peer environments. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) 45(4):1–40

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Meshkova E, Riihijärvi J, Petrova M, Mähönen P (2008) A survey on resource discovery mechanisms, peer-to-peer and service discovery frameworks. Comput Netw 52(11):2097–2128

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Kapoor H, Mehta K, Puri D (2013) Survey of various search mechanisms in unstructured peer-to-peer networks. Int J Comput Appl (IJCA) 68(6):21–25

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Thampi S (2010) Survey of search and replication schemes in unstructured p2p networks, arXiv preprint arXiv, vol. 2, no. 1

  16. 16.

    Ding G (2013) A control theoretic approach to analyzing peer-to-peer searching, in 8th International Workshop on Feedback Computing, San Jose

  17. 17.

    Navimipour N, Milani F (2015) A comprehensive study of the resource discovery techniques in peer-to-peer networks. Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications (PPNA) 8(3):474–492

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Palmieri F (2017) Bayesian resource discovery in infrastructure-less networks. Inf Sci 376:95–109

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Gunopulos D, Zeinalipour-Yazti D (2002) A local search mechanism for peer-to-peer networks, in Proceedings of the eleventh international conference on Information and knowledge management, ACM, McLean, Virginia, USA

  20. 20.

    Fox G (2001) Peer-to-peer networks, Computing in Science & Engineering (CiSE) 3(3):75

  21. 21.

    Li Z (2017) A hybrid peer-to-peer framework for supply chain visibility, Purdue University, West Lafayette: Doctoral dissertation

  22. 22.

    Wu K, Wu C (2013) State-based search strategy in unstructured P2P. Futur Gener Comput Syst (FGCS) 29(1):381–386

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Mirtaheri S, Sharifi M (2014) An efficient resource discovery framework for pure unstructured peer-to-peer systems. Comput Netw 59:213–226

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Al-Aaridhi R, Dlikman I, Masinde N (2018) Search Algorithms for Distributed Data Structures in P2P Networks, in International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC), Rome, Italy

  25. 25.

    Gaeta R, Sereno M (2011) Generalized probabilistic flooding in unstructured peer-to-peer networks. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems (TPDS) 22(12):2055–2062

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Song S, Zeng X, Hu W, Chen Y (2010) Resource search in peer-to-peer network based on power law distribution. In Second International Conference on Networks Security, Wireless Communications and Trusted Computing (Nswctc), Wuhan, Hubei, China

  27. 27.

    Dorrigiv R, Lopez-Ortiz A (2007) Search algorithms for unstructured peer-to-peer networks, in 32nd IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN 2007), Dublin, Ireland

  28. 28.

    Jamal A, Teahan W (2017) Alpha multipliers breadth-first search technique for resource discovery in unstructured peer-to-peer networks. Int J Adv Sci Eng Inf Technol 7(4):1403–1412

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Margariti S, Dimakopoulos V (2015) On probabilistic flooding search over unstructured. Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications (PPNA) 8(3):447–458

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Bisnik N, Abouzeid A (2007) Optimizing random walk search algorithms in P2P networks. Comput Netw 51(6):1499–1514

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Zhang H, Zhang L, Shan X (2007) Probabilistic search in p2p networks with high node degree variation, in IEEE International Conference on Communications, Glasgow, UK

  32. 32.

    Ogino N, Kitahara T (2017) An efficient content search method based on local link replacement in unstructured peer-to-peer networks. IEICE Trans Commun 101(3):740–749

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Kalogeraki V, Gunopulos D (2002) A local search mechanism for peer-to-peer networks, in Proceedings of the eleventh international conference on Information and knowledge management. ACM, McLean, Virginia, USA

  34. 34.

    Bashmal L, Almulifi A, Kurdi H (2017) Hybrid resource discovery algorithms for unstructured peer-to-peer networks. Procedia Computer Science (PCS) 109:289–296

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Navimipour N, Rahmani A, Navin A (2014) Resource discovery mechanisms in grid systems: a survey. J Netw Comput Appl 1(41):389–410

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Qu W, Zhou W, Kitsuregawa M (2010) Sharable file searching in unstructured Peer-to-peer systems, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 149–166

  37. 37.

    Hidayanto A, Bressan S (2011) Adaptive routing algorithms in unstructured peer-to-peer(P 2 P) systems. Int J Comput Sci Eng 3(2):487–505

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Wu L, Akavipat R, Menczer F (2005) 6S: Distributing Crawling and Searching Across Web Peers., in Web Technologies, Applications, and Services, Calgary, Canada

  39. 39.

    Zhu Y, Hu Y (2006) Enhancing search performance on Gnutella-like P2P systems. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems (TPDS) 17(12). https://doi.org/10.1109/TPDS.2006.173

  40. 40.

    Guo Y, Liu L, Wu Y, Hardy J (2018) Interest-aware content discovery in peer-to-peer social networks. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology (TOIT) 18(3):39–60

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Yang M, Yang Y (2009) An efficient hybrid peer-to-peer system for distributed data sharing. IEEE Trans Comput 59(9):1158–1171

    MathSciNet  MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Loo B, Huebsch R, Stoica I, Hellerstein J (2004) The case for a hybrid P2P search infrastructure, in International workshop on Peer-To-Peer Systems, Berlin

  43. 43.

    Zaharia M, Keshav S (2008) Gossip-based search selection in hybrid peer-to-peer networks. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience (CCPE) 20(2):139–153

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Šešum-Čavić V, Kuehn E, Zischka S (2018) Swarm-inspired routing algorithms for unstructured P2P networks. International Journal of Swarm Intelligence Research (IJSIR) 9(3):23–63

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Šešum-Čavić V, Kühn E, Kanev D (2016) Bio-inspired search algorithms for unstructured P2P overlay networks. Swarm and Evolutionary Computation (SEC) 29(1):73–93

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Guan Z, Cao Y, Hou X, Zhu D (2007) A novel efficient search algorithm in unstructured P2P networks," in Second Workshop on Digital Media and its Application in Museum & Heritages (DMAMH 2007), IEEE, Chongqing, China

  47. 47.

    Krynicki K, Jaén Martínez F (2014) Ant colony optimization for resource searching in dynamic peer-to-peer grids. International Journal of Bio-Inspired Computation (IJBIC) 3(6):153–165

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Krynicki K, Jaen J, Mocholi J (2013) On the performance of ACO-based methods in p2p resource discovery. Appl Soft Comput 13(12):4813–4831

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Khatibi E, Mirtaheri S, Khaneghah E, Sharifi M (2012) Dynamic multilevel feedback-based searching strategy in unstructured peer-to-peer systems, in IEEE International Conference on Green Computing and Communications, Besancon, France

  50. 50.

    Chawathe Y, Ratnasamy S, Breslau L (2003) "Making gnutella-like p2p systems scalable," in conference on Applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communications, Karlsruhe, Germany

  51. 51.

    Chen H, Jin H, Liu Y, Ni L (2008) Difficulty-aware hybrid search in peer-to-peer networks. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems (TPDS) 20(1):71–82

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Mikolov T, Chen K, Corrado G, Dean J (2013) Efficient estimation of word representations in vector space, in ICLR Workshop

  53. 53.

    Hamza R, Yan Z, Muhammad K, Bellavista P (2019) A privacy-preserving cryptosystem for IoT E-healthcare, Information Sciences

  54. 54.

    Hamza R, Muhammad K, Lv Z, Titouna F (2017) Secure video summarization framework for personalized wireless capsule endoscopy. Pervasive and Mobile Computing (PMC) 1(41):436–450

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Riad K, Hamza R, Yan H (2019) Sensitive and energetic IoT access control for managing cloud electronic health records. IEEE Access (IEEEAccess) 7:86384–86393

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohsen Sharifi.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Khatibi, E., Sharifi, M. & Mirtaheri, S.L. DPAS: A dynamic popularity-aware search mechanism for unstructured P2P systems. Peer-to-Peer Netw. Appl. 13, 825–849 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12083-019-00831-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Unstructured peer-to-peer systems
  • Resource searching
  • Dynamic popularity of resources