Optimized clustering in vehicular ad hoc networks based on honey bee and genetic algorithm for internet of things


In vehicular ad hoc network (VANET), the size of routing table can be reduced with the help of clustering architecture. The frequent changes in topology are the noteworthy characteristics of a VANET as its nature is dynamic. To manage the topology dynamics in VANET with less overhead, the concept of clustering can be used. Henceforth, an effective procedure that adjusts quickly to the topology changes should be designed. Firstly, the clustering problem (CP) in VANET is formulated into a dynamic optimization problem in this paper. Secondly, an optimization algorithm named Vehicular Genetic Bee Clustering (VGBC) based on honey bee algorithm and properties of genetic algorithm solves the CP in VANETs is suggested. In VGBC, individuals (bees) represent a realistic clustering structure and its fitness is measured on the basis of load balancing and stability. A technique that merges the properties of genetic algorithm and honey bee algorithm is proposed. It helps the population to handle the topology changes and harvest high quality solutions. The simulation results piloted for justification demonstrate that the VGBC form steady and balanced clusters. The simulation results are matched with state of the art clustering schemes in VANET. The VGBC outperform existing schemes in terms of cluster count, cluster duration, re-affiliation rate, computational overhead, load balancing, VANET lifetime and clustering overhead.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15


  1. 1.

    Liang W, Li Z, Zhang H, Wang S, Bie R (2015) Vehicular ad hoc networks: Architectures, research issues, methodologies, challenges, and trends. Int J Distrib Sens N 11(8):745303

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Wahid I, Ikram AA, Ahmad M, Ali S, Ali A (2018) State of the art routing protocols in VANETs: A review. Procedia Comput Sci 130:689–694

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Ren M, Khoukhi L, Labiod H, Zhang J, Vèque V (2016) A mobility-based scheme for dynamic clustering in vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs). Veh Commun 9:233–241

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Zeeshan Hussain S, Ahmad N (2014) Cluster based controlling of route exploring packets in ad-hoc networks. In: Kundu MK et al (Eds) Advanced computing, networking and informatics 2:103–112

  5. 5.

    Wang T, Wang G (2010) TIBCRPH: Traffic infrastructure based cluster routing protocol with handoff in VANET. In 2010 19th Annual Wireless and Optical Communications Conference (WOCC). IEEE, pp 1–5

  6. 6.

    Ahmad M, Habib M, Shah MZ, Ullah F, Hussain S (2010) Energy aware uniform cluster-head distribution technique for hierarchal wireless sensor networks. Int J Comput Sci Inf Secur 10(10):97–101

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Zhao M, Kumar A, Chong PHJ, Lu R (2017) A comprehensive study of RPL and P2P-RPL routing protocols: Implementation, challenges and opportunities. Peer-to-Peer Netw Appl 10(5):1232–1256

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Rawashdeh ZY, Mahmud SM (2012) A novel algorithm to form stable clusters in vehicular ad hoc networks on highways. EURASIP J Wirel Commun Netw 2012(1):15

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Ozera K, Bylykbashi K, Liu Y, Barolli L (2018) A security-aware fuzzy-based CHV selection system for VANETs. In: International Conference on Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing. Springer, Cham, pp 505–516

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Ahmad M, Ikram AA, Lela R, Wahid I, Ulla R (2017) Honey bee algorithm–based efficient cluster formation and optimization scheme in mobile ad hoc networks. Int J Distrib Sens N 13(6). https://doi.org/10.1177/1550147717716815

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Karaoglu B et al (2011) Analytical performance of soft clustering protocols. Ad Hoc Netw 9(4):635–651

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Basurra SS et al (2015) Energy efficient zone based routing protocol for MANETs. Ad Hoc Netw 25:16–37

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Kim Y-S (2011) A cluster-based web service discovery in MANET environments. Mob Inf Syst 7:299–315. https://doi.org/10.3233/MIS-2011-0124

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Trindade J et al (2014) Routing on large scale mobile ad hoc networks using bloom filters. Ad Hoc Netw 23:34–51

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Hussain SZ et al (2014) Cluster based controlling of route exploring packets in ad-hoc networks. In: Kundu MK et al (eds) Advanced computing, networking and informatics 2:103–112

  16. 16.

    Hussain K et al (2013) Efficient CHV selection algorithm for MANET. Int J Comput Netw Commun Secur 1–7

  17. 17.

    Biswas GP et al (2014) Dynamic clustering based hybrid routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks, recent advances in information technology. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing 266

  18. 18.

    Akbari Torkestani J et al (2011) A mobility-based cluster formation algorithm for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks. Clust Comput 14:311–324

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Dekar L et al (2008) A cluster based mobility prediction scheme for ad hoc networks. Ad Hoc Netw 6:168–194

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Neethu VV et al (2015) Mobility aware loose clustering for mobile ad hoc network. Procedia Comput Sci 54:57–64

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Robert J et al (2012) RBC-OLSR: Reputation-based clustering OLSR protocol for wireless ad hoc networks. Comput Commun 35:487–499

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Venkanna U et al (2016) TEA-CBRP: Distributed CHV election in MANET by using AHP. Peer-to-Peer Netw Appl 9(1):159–170

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Mylsamy R et al (2015) A preference-based protocol for trust and head selection for cluster-based MANET. Wirel Pers Commun 1–17

  24. 24.

    Park S et al (2013) An efficient reliable one-hop broadcast in mobile ad hoc networks. Ad Hoc Netw 11:19–28

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Subathra P et al (2012) A cluster-based reliable token circulation scheme for group communication in MANET. Arab J Sci Eng 37:647–664. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-012-0195-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Lin D, Kang J, Squicciarini A, Wu Y, Gurung S, Tonguz O (2017) MoZo: A moving zone based routing protocol using pure V2V communication in VANETs. IEEE Trans Mob Comput 16(5):1357–1370

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Rivoirard L, Wahl M, Sondi P, Berbineau M, Gruyer D (2018) Chain-branch-leaf: A clustering scheme for vehicular networks using only V2V communications. Ad Hoc Netw 68:70–84

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Ji X, Yu H, Fan G, Sun H, Chen L. LRCA: Efficient and reliable cluster-based data transmission for vehicular ad hoc networks. Mob Inf Syst 2018: 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9826782

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Tarique M et al (2009) Minimum energy hierarchical dynamic source routing for mobile ad hoc networks. Ad Hoc Netw 7:1125–1135. (energy Effiecient)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The research is supported by Higher Education Commission Islamabad.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Fasee Ullah.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This article is part of the Topical Collection: Special Issue on IoT System Technologies based on Quality of Experience Guest Editors: Cho Jaeik, Naveen Chilamkurti, and SJ Wang

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ahmad, M., Ikram, A.A., Wahid, I. et al. Optimized clustering in vehicular ad hoc networks based on honey bee and genetic algorithm for internet of things. Peer-to-Peer Netw. Appl. 13, 532–547 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12083-019-00724-4

Download citation


  • VANETs
  • Optimization
  • Honey bee algorithm
  • Genetic algorithm
  • Cluster