Skip to main content

Validation of H-P2PSIP, a scalable solution for interoperability among different overlay networks


This paper reports the results of experiments from an implementation of H-P2PSIP, a hierarchical overlay architecture based on the ongoing work in the IETF P2PSIP Working Group. This architecture allows the exchange of information among different independent overlay networks through the use of a two-layer architecture based on super-peers and hierarchical identifiers. The validation of this proposal is based on a Linux based real implementation where we have used four different scenarios with 1,000 peers in order to perform different experiments. We have obtained results for different parameters such as routing performance (number of hops), delay, routing state (number of overlay routing entries) and bandwidth consumption.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14

Similar content being viewed by others





  4. Although RELOAD considers overlay networks in general, it is especially focused on structured Peer-to-Peer networks, mainly Distributed Hash Tables (DHTs). Thereby, we use from this moment both terms overlay network and peer-to-peer network with the same meaning. Each term is selected depending on the context where it is used.








  1. Artigas M, Lopez P, Ahullo J, Skarmeta A (2005) Cyclone: a novel design schema for hierarchical dhts. In: Fifth IEEE international conference on peer-to-peer computing, 2005, P2P 2005, pp 49–56

  2. Banerjee S, Griffin T, Pias M (2004) The interdomain connectivity of Planetlab nodes. In: Passive and active network measurement, pp 73–82

  3. Baset S, Schulzrinne H, Matuszewski M (2007) Peer-to-peer protocol (P2PP). Internet draft draft-baset-p2psip-p2pp-01.txt

  4. Bauer K, Sherr M, McCoy D, Grunwald D (2011) Experimentor: a testbed for safe and realistic tor experimentation. In: Proceedings of the 4th conference on cyber security experimentation and test, CSET’11. USENIX Association, Berkeley, CA, USA, pp 7–7.

  5. Bryan D, Matthews P, Shim E, Willis D, Dawkins S (2010) Concepts and terminology for peer to peer sip. Internet draft draft-ietf-p2psip-concepts-03.txt

  6. Castro M, Druschel P, Kermarrec AM, Rowstron A (2002) Scribe: a large-scale and decentralized application-level multicast infrastructure. IEEE JSAC 20(8):1489–1499

    Google Scholar 

  7. Castro M, Druschel P, Kermarrec AM, Rowstron A (2003) Scalable application-level anycast for highly dynamic groups. In: Group communications and charges. Lecture notes in computer science, vol 2816. Springer, Berlin, pp 47–57

    Google Scholar 

  8. Chen X, Chu X, Liu J (2010) A lightweight emulator for bittorrent-like file sharing systems. In: 2010 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp 1–5. doi:10.1109/ICC.2010.5502796

  9. Cheng L (2007) Bridging distributed hash tables in wireless ad-hoc networks. In: Global telecommunications conference, 2007, GLOBECOM ’07. IEEE, pp 5159–5163

  10. Cheng L, Ocampo R, Jean K, Galis A, Simon C, Szabo R, Kersch P, Giaffreda R (2006) Towards distributed hash tables (de)composition in ambient networks. In: Large scale management of distributed systems. Lecture notes in computer science, vol 4269. Springer, Berlin, pp 258–268

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  11. Chun B, Chun B, Spalink T (2003) Slice creation and management. Tech. rep., Intel Research Berkeley and Princeton University

  12. Chun B, Culler D, Roscoe T, Bavier A, Peterson L, Wawrzoniak M, Bowman M (2003) Planetlab: an overlay testbed for broad-coverage services. SIGCOMM Comput Commun Rev 33(3):3–12

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. C.I.A. (2012) Country comparison: internet users.

  14. Douceur J (2002) The sybil attack. In: Druschel P, Kaashoek F, Rowstron A (eds) Peer-to-peer systems. Lecture notes in computer science, vol 2429. Springer, Berlin, pp 251–260

    Google Scholar 

  15. Erman D, Ilie D, Popescu A (2009) Bittorrent session characteristics and models. River Publishers Series in Information Science and Technology. Special Issue in Traffic Engineering, Performance Evaluation Studies and Tools for Heterogeneous Networks 1:61–84

  16. Fonseca P, Rodrigues R, Gupta A, Liskov B (2009) Full-information lookups for peer-to-peer overlays. IEEE TPDS 20(9):1339–1351. doi:10.1109/TPDS.2008.222

    Google Scholar 

  17. Furtado P (2007) Multiple dynamic overlay communities and inter-space routing. In: Databases, information systems, and peer-to-peer computing. Lecture notes in computer science, vol 4125. Springer, Berlin, pp 38–49

    Google Scholar 

  18. Ganesan P, Gummadi K, Garcia-Molina H (2004) Canon in G major: designing DHTs with hierarchical structure. In: Proceedings of the 24th international conference on distributed computing systems (ICDCS’04) (ICDCS ’04). IEEE computer society. Washington, DC, USA, pp 263–272

  19. Garces-Erice L, Biersack EW, Ross KW, Felber PA, Urvoy-Keller G (2004) Hierarchical P2P systems. In: Euro-Par 2003 parallel processing, vol 2790, Springer, pp 1230–1239

  20. Hersent O, Petit J, Gurle D (2005) Beyond VoIP protocols: understanding voice technology and networking techniques for IP telephony. Wiley.

  21. Hibler M, Ricci R, Stoller L, Duerig J, Guruprasad S, Stack T, Webb K, Lepreau J (2008) Large-scale virtualization in the emulab network testbed. In: USENIX annual technical conference. USENIX Association, pp 113–128

  22. Internet usage statistics (2012)

  23. Jennings C, Lowekamp B, Rescorla E, Baset S, Schulzrinne H (2011) A sip usage for reload. Internet draft draft-ietf-p2psip-sip-06.txt

  24. Jennings C, Lowekamp BB, Rescorla E, Baset S, Schulzrinne H (2011) Resource location and discovery (reload) base protocol. Internet draft draft-ietf-p2psip-base-16.txt

  25. Ko SK, Kim YH, Oh SH, Lee BT, Avila VP (2009) Iptv usage for reload. Internet draft draft-softgear-p2psip-iptv-02.txt

  26. Lakshman A, Malik P (2010) Cassandra: a decentralized structured storage system. ACM SIGOPS Oper Syst Rev 44(2):35–40

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Leonini L, Rivière E, Felber P (2009) Splay: distributed systems evaluation made simple (or how to turn ideas into live systems in a breeze). In: Proceedings of the 6th USENIX symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, NSDI’09. USENIX Association, Berkeley, CA, USA, pp 185–198.

  28. Martinez-Yelmo I, Bikfalvi A, Guerrero C, Cuevas R, Mauthe A (2008) Enabling global multimedia distributed services based on hierarchical dht overlay networks. IJIPT International Journal of Internet Protocol Technology 3(4):234–244

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Martinez-Yelmo I, Bikfalvi A, Guerrero C, Cuevas R, Mauthe A (2008) Enabling global multimedia distributed services based on hierarchical dht overlay networks. In: The Second International Conference on Next Generation Mobile Applications, Services and Technologies, 2008, NGMAST ’08, pp 543–549. doi:10.1109/NGMAST.2008.42

  30. Martinez-Yelmo I, Cuevas R, Guerrero C, Mauthe A (2008) Routing performance in a hierarchical dht-based overlay network. In: 16th Euromicro conference on parallel, distributed and network-based processing, 2008, PDP 2008, pp 508–515. doi:10.1109/PDP.2008.79

  31. Martinez-Yelmo I, Bikfalvi A, Cuevas R, Guerrero C, Garcia J (2009) H-P2PSIP: Interconnection of P2PSIP domains for global multimedia services based on a hierarchical dht overlay network. Comput Networks 53(4):556–568. Special Issue on Content Distribution Infrastructures for Community Networks

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  32. Martinez-Yelmo I, Guerrero C, Cuevas R, Mauthe A (2009) A hierarchical p2psip architecture to support skype-like services. In: 17th Euromicro international conference on parallel, distributed and network-based processing, 2009, pp 316–322. doi:10.1109/PDP.2009.27

  33. Martinez-Yelmo I, Gonzalez R, Guerrero C (2010) Benefits of an implementation of h-p2psip. In: The second international conference on advances in P2P systems, (AP2PS 2010). IARA

  34. Martinez-Yelmo I, Seoane I, Guerrero C (2010) Fair quality of experience (qoe) measurements related with networking technologies. In: Wired/wireless internet communications. Lecture notes in computer science, vol 6074. Springer, Berlin, pp 228–239

    Google Scholar 

  35. Matthews W, Cottrell L (2000) The PingER project: active internet performance monitoring for the henp community. Commun Mag 38(5):130–136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Maymounkov P, Mazieres D (2002) Peer-to-peer systems: first international workshop, IPTPS 2002, Cambridge, MA, USA, 7–8 Mar 2002. Revised papers, Lecture notes in computer science, vol 2429/2002, chap. Kademlia: a peer-to-peer information system based on the XOR metric. Springer, pp 53–65

  37. Min SH, Holliday J, Cho DS (2006) Optimal super-peer selection for large-scale P2P system. In: International conference on Hybrid Information Technology, 2006, ICHIT’06, vol 2, pp 588–593

  38. Mislove A, Druschel P (2005) Providing administrative control and autonomy in structured peer-to-peer overlays. In: Peer-to-peer systems III, pp 162–172

  39. Mizrak AT, Cheng Y, Kumar V, Savage S (2003) Structured superpeers: leveraging heterogeneity to provide constant-time lookup. In: Proceedings of internet applications, WIAPP 2003, pp 104–111

  40. Rhea S, Chun B, Kubiatowicz J, Shenker S (2005) Fixing the embarrassing slowness of opendht on Planetlab. In: Proc. of the second USENIX workshop on real, large distributed systems, pp 25–30

  41. Rosenberg J (2010) Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE): a protocol for Network Address Translator (NAT) traversal for offer/answer protocols. RFC 5245 (proposed standard)

  42. Sanchez-Artigas M, Garcia-Lopez P, Skarmeta AFG (2008) On the feasibility of dynamic superpeer ratio maintenance. In: P2P ’08: proceedings of the 2008 eighth international conference on peer-to-peer computing. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA

  43. Steiner M, En-Najjary T, Biersack EW (2007) A global view of kad. In: IMC ’07: Proceedings of the 7th ACM SIGCOMM conference on internet measurement. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 117–122

  44. Stoica I, Morris R, Liben-Nowell D, Karger D, Kaashoek M, Dabek F, Balakrishnan H (2003) Chord: a scalable peer-to-peer lookup protocol for internet applications. IEEE/ACM Trans Netw 11(1):17–32

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Vahdat A, Yocum K, Walsh K, Mahadevan P, Kostić D, Chase J, Becker D (2002) Scalability and accuracy in a large-scale network emulator. SIGOPS Oper Syst Rev 36(SI):271–284

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Vratonjić N, Gupta P, Knežević N, Kostić D, Rowstron A (2007) Enabling dvd-like features in p2p video-on-demand systems. In: Proceedings of the 2007 workshop on peer-to-peer streaming and IP-TV, P2P-TV ’07. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 329–334. doi:10.1145/1326320.1326326

  47. Wang J, Shen J, Meng Y (2009) Content sharing usage for reload. Internet draft draft-shen-p2psip-content-sharing-00.txt

  48. Xu Z, Min R, Hu Y (2003) Hieras: a dht based hierarchical P2P routing algorithm. In: International conference on parallel processing, 2003. Proceedings, pp 187–194

  49. Zhou Z, Wang H, Zhou J, Tang L, Li K, Zheng W, Fang M (2006) Pigeon: a framework for testing peer-to-peer massively multiplayer online games over heterogeneous network. In: Consumer communications and networking conference, 2006, CCNC 2006. 3rd IEEE, vol 2, pp 1028–1032. doi:10.1109/CCNC.2006.1593194

Download references


We would like to acknowledge the anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments and Felix Gomez- Fernandez for his collaboration in this work. This research was supported in part by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement n 25774 (TREND Network of Excellence), Comunidad de Madrid grant S-2009/TIC-1468 (MEDIANET project) and Spanish MICINN grant TEC2011-29688-C02-02 (eeCONTENT project).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Isaias Martinez-Yelmo.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Martinez-Yelmo, I., Gonzalez-Sanchez, R. & Guerrero, C. Validation of H-P2PSIP, a scalable solution for interoperability among different overlay networks. Peer-to-Peer Netw. Appl. 6, 175–193 (2013).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: