Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 295–300 | Cite as

An integrated map of corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway

  • Tejaswini Subbannayya
  • Lavanya Balakrishnan
  • Granthali Sudarshan
  • Jayshree Advani
  • Santosh Kumar
  • Riaz Mahmood
  • Bipin Nair
  • Ravi Sirdeshmukh
  • Kanchan K. Mukherjee
  • Sudhir N. Umathe
  • Rajesh Raju
  • T. S. Keshava Prasad
Nuts and Bolts


Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), is a 41-amino acid neuropeptide, expressed abundantly by CRH neurons present in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, and other parts of the brain (Aguilera and Liu 2012; Vale et al. 1981). CRH is also expressed in adrenal gland, immune cells, placenta, testis, spleen, gut, thymus and skin (Dautzenberg and Hauger 2002; Aguilera and Liu 2012). The activity of the hypothalamic CRH neurons varies in resting and stress conditions. Circadian variations have an effect on CRH neuron activity. On stressful stimuli, sensory information is either transmitted directly to the PVN or integrated by the limbic system and transmitted to the CRH neurons via complex monoaminergic and peptidergic neural pathways. This is dependent on the nature, intensity and duration of the stressor. Systemic and metabolic stressors including blood loss, pain, immune challenge and hypoglycemia, which...


Anorexia Nervosa Molecular Reaction Human Protein Reference Database Stromal Cell Decidualization PubMed Identifier 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Corticotropin-releasing hormone


Corticotropin-releasing factor


Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor


Paraventricular nucleus


G-protein coupled receptor


Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1


Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2


Corticotropin-releasing hormone binding protein




Adrenocorticotropic hormone


Protein-protein interaction


Post-translational modification


Human Protein Reference Database


Systems Biology Markup Language


Proteomics Standards Initiative for Molecular Interaction


Biological Pathway Exchange



We thank the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India for research support to the Institute of Bioinformatics, Bangalore.

Conflict of interest

No potential conflicts of interest were declared.


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Copyright information

© The International CCN Society 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tejaswini Subbannayya
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lavanya Balakrishnan
    • 1
    • 3
  • Granthali Sudarshan
    • 3
  • Jayshree Advani
    • 1
  • Santosh Kumar
    • 3
  • Riaz Mahmood
    • 3
  • Bipin Nair
    • 2
  • Ravi Sirdeshmukh
    • 1
  • Kanchan K. Mukherjee
    • 4
  • Sudhir N. Umathe
    • 5
  • Rajesh Raju
    • 1
  • T. S. Keshava Prasad
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of BioinformaticsInternational Technology ParkWhitefieldIndia
  2. 2.Amrita School of BiotechnologyAmrita UniversityKollamIndia
  3. 3.Department of Biotechnology and Department of BioinformaticsKuvempu UniversityShankaraghattaIndia
  4. 4.Department of NeurosurgeryPostgraduate Institute of Medical Education & ResearchChandigarhIndia
  5. 5.Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesRashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur UniversityNagpurIndia

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