Micturition Drive is Associated with Decreased Brain Response to Palatable Milkshake in the Human Anterior Insular Cortex
Most functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of taste deliver small quantities of liquids over roughly 45 min to repeatedly sample brain response to tastants. Within this time participants frequently report that their need to urinate increases.
Since both gustatory and interoceptive information are represented in the anterior insular cortex, we evaluated whether perceived need to urinate influenced insular responses to the receipt of a small bolus of milkshake in two datasets (n = 45).
Change in pre- to post-scan ratings of desire to urinate was inversely related to anterior insular response to milkshake.
This finding demonstrates that micturition drive influences insular response to milkshake and supports previous reports of overlapping gustatory and visceral representation within human anterior insular cortex.
KeywordsInteroception Taste Multisensory fMRI
This work was funded by funding from the National Institutes of Health grant R01 DK085579.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health grant to Dana Small (#R01 DK085579).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. Informed consent to participate in our study was approved by Yale University School of Medicine Human Investigation Committee.
- Hanamori T, Kunitake T, Kato K, Kannan H (1998) Responses of neurons in the insular cortex to gustatory, visceral, and nociceptive stimuli in rats. J Neurophysiol 79:2535–2545Google Scholar
- O’Doherty J, Rolls ET, Francis S, Bowtell R, McGlone F (2001) Representation of pleasant and aversive taste in the human brain. J Neurophysiol 85:1315–1321Google Scholar
- Small DM, Gregory MD, Mak YE, Gitelman D, Mesulam MM, Parrish T (2003) Dissociation of neural representation of intensity and affective valuation in human gustation. Neuron 39:701–711. doi: 10.1016/S0896-6273(03)00467-7
- Smeets PA, de Graaf C, Stafleu A, van Osch MJ, Nievelstein RA, van der Grond J (2006) Effect of satiety on brain activation during chocolate tasting in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 83:1297–1305Google Scholar