Chemosensory Perception

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 183–191 | Cite as

Iran Smell Identification Test (Iran-SIT): a Modified Version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) for Iranian Population

  • Safa TaherkhaniEmail author
  • Fathollah Moztarzadeh
  • Jalal Mehdizadeh Seraj
  • Seyed Saeed Hashemi NazariEmail author
  • Farzad Taherkhani
  • Jaber Gharehdaghi
  • Arash Okazi
  • Sevda Pouraghaei



Based on cultural adaption, various types of olfactory tests have been designed in different countries. The aim of this study was to develop a standardized smell identification test to evaluate the olfactory function of Iranian population.


For designing Iran smell identification test (Iran-SIT), we selected the most familiar odors for Iranians, and prepared a 24-item smell identification test in four-alternative forced-choice paradigm. We tested 577 healthy subjects aged 6 to 68 years by Iran-SIT. In order to assess the reliability and stability of Iran-SIT over time, 96 subjects participated in the retest study after 5 months.


All odors of Iran-SIT were identified by more than 70 % of subjects. Identification scores were significantly changed by age. Children and elderly subjects represented significantly lower identification scores than adult aged 20–50 years. There were no significant differences between adult aged 20–50 years. Test-retest study revealed that Iran-SIT is a highly reliable and valid test (Pearson’s correlation coefficient between test-retest identification scores: r = 0.93). In order to classify adult patients into four olfactory disorder levels, we determined diagnostic criterion of olfactory disorder using Iran-SIT based on the identification score obtained from subjects aged 20–50 years.


Iran-SIT with high reliability and validity has adequacy to distinguish among normosmia, mild microsmia, severe microsmia, and anosmia.


Smell identification test (SIT) Iranian population Chemical sense Olfactory function Anosmia Age 



This work was carried out with financial support from the Iran National Science Foundation (INSF). The authors wish to thank the Iranian Legal Medicine Research Center for supporting us to conduct the study on detecting malingering. We are very grateful to Dr. Saloumeh Salarian, Dr. Ebrahim Razmpa, Dr. Amin Amali, Dr. Shahin Bastaninejad, Dr. Masoud Mozafari, and Dr. Maryam Ghaffari for their valuable guidance. Special thanks are owed to all who participated in our study with great patience and kindness.

Compliance with Ethics Requirements

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2013. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for being included in this study.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence)Amirkabir University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of OtolaryngologyTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Research CenterShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public HealthShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Department of Mechanical EngineeringTehran UniversityTehranIran
  6. 6.Department of Legal Medicine Research CenterTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  7. 7.Forensic Medicine DepartmentTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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