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Regional drivers of green inventions in OECD countries

Abstract

One of the main current concerns of countries worldwide has been to develop green inventions and thus promote sustainable growth. However, the literature is yet to thoroughly discuss the drivers influencing the production of green inventions at a regional level. This paper assesses key constraints on the production of green inventions regionally, such as green and fossil fuel path dependence-related drivers, including R&D intensity, knowledge spillovers, degree of industrialization, and GDP per capita. The analysis comprises a panel of 187 regions from 21 OECD countries from 1990 to 2016 and uses System GMM. The econometric estimations reveal that path-dependence drivers influence green and fossil fuel patents. Evidence also shows that a positive relationship between the production of green inventions and R&D intensity, levels of GDP per capita, degree of economic development, and knowledge spillovers.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Except for dummies, all variables were transformed into natural logarithm form (ln) to avoid any variable scale issues.

  2. 2.

    Group formed by Germany, Canada, United States, France, Italy, Japan and the United Kingdom.

  3. 3.

    An econometric estimation not shown here included the variable educational level of the population. The results revealed a strong association with green inventions with no effects over other results. We chose not to have this variable here due to the lack of available data for the OECD regions in the period analyzed (1990–2016).

  4. 4.

    The Arellano-Bond tests [AR (1) and AR (2)] indicated that the results with the largest lags did not support the hypotheses of the GMM System estimator and used an exaggerated number of instruments.

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Correspondence to Eduardo Gonçalves.

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Appendix

Appendix

See Tables 5 , 6 .

Table 5 Green patent classification according IPC codes.
Table 6 Fossil-fuel patent classification according IPC codes.

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Levate, P.V., Gonçalves, E. & Taveira, J.G. Regional drivers of green inventions in OECD countries. Lett Spat Resour Sci 14, 335–354 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12076-021-00284-3

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Keywords

  • Green inventions
  • Fossil-fuel inventions
  • Patents
  • Path dependence
  • OECD regions
  • System GMM