Advertisement

Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 63–85 | Cite as

The effect of environmental attitudes and policies on separate waste collection: the case of Insular Italy

  • Rosalia Castellano
  • Gaetano Musella
  • Gennaro PunzoEmail author
Original Paper
  • 23 Downloads

Abstract

This paper investigates the factors determining waste management performance by comparing two Italian regions, Sicily and Sardinia. Using data from official records at the municipal level, the recentered influence function regression is implemented to evaluate the territorial divide in separate waste collection rates between the regions. Then, the divide is disentangled into administrative and spatial components. The administrative component evaluates the effectiveness of the strategic policies set by the regional authority and their implementation by municipalities. The spatial component captures the presence of spatial contagion effect and considers citizens’ pro-environmental behaviours. The main results show that Sardinia has achieved better performance because of its advantages of extrinsic motivations, citizens’ pro-environmental attitudes, local institutional quality, and synergy between citizens and local governments. In Sicily, the weakness of local institutions makes citizens’ participation difficult and generates citizens’ indifference towards environmental issues, explaining most of the failures in the regional waste management.

Keywords

Separate waste collection Pro-environmental behaviours Local governments RIF regression Spillover effects 

JEL Classification

C21 Q53 Q58 R11 R5 

Notes

References

  1. Agovino, M., Casaccia, M., Crociata, A.: The impact of European Regional Development Fund on separate waste collection: evidence from Italian regions. Environ. Sci. Policy 61, 97–107 (2016a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agovino, M., Crociata, A., Sacco, P.L.: Location matters for pro-environmental behavior: a spatial Markov Chains approach to proximity effects in differentiated waste collection. Ann. Reg. Sci. 56(1), 295–315 (2016b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agovino, M., Ferrara, M., Garofalo, A.: An exploratory analysis on waste management in Italy: a focus on waste disposed in landfill. Land Use Policy 57, 669–681 (2016c)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agovino, M., Garofalo, A., Mariani, A.: Effects of environmental regulation on separate waste collection dynamics: empirical evidence from Italy. J. Clean. Prod. 124, 30–40 (2016d)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Agovino, M., Garofalo, A., Mariani, A.: Separate waste collection in Italy: the role of socio-cultural factors and targets set by law. Environ. Dev. Sustain. 19(2), 589–605 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Agovino, M., Cerciello, M., Musella, G.: The good and the bad: identifying homogeneous groups of municipalities in terms of separate waste collection determinants in Italy. Ecol. Ind. 98, 297–309 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anselin, L.: Spatial Econometrics: Methods and Models. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anselin, L.: Interactive techniques and exploratory spatial data analysis. Geogr.Inf. Syst. Princ. Tech. Manag. Appl. 1, 251–264 (1999)Google Scholar
  9. Anselin, L.: Spatial econometrics. A companion to theoretical econometrics, 310330. ISO 690 (2001)Google Scholar
  10. Barr, S., Gilg, A.W., Ford, N.J.: A conceptual framework for understanding and analysing attitudes towards household-waste management. Environ. Plan. A 33(11), 2025–2048 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beede, D.N., Bloom, D.E.: The economics of municipal solid waste. World Bank Res. Obs. 10(2), 113–150 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blinder, A.: Wage discrimination: reduced form and structural estimates. J. Hum.Resour. 8, 436–455 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bohm, R.A., Folz, D.H., Kinnaman, T.C., Podolsky, M.J.: The costs of municipal waste and recycling programs. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 54(11), 864–871 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burn, S.M., Oskamp, S.: Increasing community recycling with persuasive communication and public commitment. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 26, 29–41 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Callan, S.J., Thomas, J.M.: The impact of state and local policies on the recycling effort. East.Econ. J. 23(4), 411–423 (1997)Google Scholar
  16. Callan, S.J., Thomas, J.M.: Economies of scale and scope: a cost analysis of municipal solid waste services. Land Econ. 77(4), 548–560 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Callan, S.J., Thomas, J.M.: Analyzing demand for disposal and recycling services: a systems approach. East. Econ. J. 32(2), 221–240 (2006)Google Scholar
  18. Carlson, A.E.: Recycling norms. Calif. Law Rev. 89(5), 1231–1300 (2001).  https://doi.org/10.2307/3481159 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Castellano, R., Musella, G., Punzo, G.: Structure of the labour market and wage inequality: evidence from European countries. Qual. Quant. 51(5), 2191–2218 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Castellano, R., Musella, G., Punzo, G.: Exploring changes in the employment structure and wage inequality in Western Europe using the unconditional quantile regression. Empirica (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10663-017-9397-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cecere, G., Mancinelli, S., Mazzanti, M.: Waste prevention and social preferences: the role of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Ecol. Econ. 107, 163–176 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Crociata, A., Agovino, M., Sacco, P.L.: Recycling waste: does culture matter? J. Behav. Exp. Econ. 55, 40–47 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Crociata, A., Agovino, M., Sacco, P.L.: Neighborhood effects and pro-environmental behavior: the case of Italian separate waste collection. J. Clean. Prod. 135, 80–89 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. D’Amato, A., Mazzanti, M., Nicolli, F.: Waste and organized crime in regional environments: how waste tariffs and the mafia affect waste management and disposal. Resour. Energy Econ. 41, 185–201 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. De Young, R.: Some psychological aspects of recycling. Environ. Behav. 18, 435–449 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Domberger, S., Meadowcroft, S.A., Thompson, D.J.: Competitive tendering and efficiency: the case of refuse collection. Fisc. Stud. 7(4), 69–87 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Donald, S.G., Green, D.A., Paarsch, H.J.: Differences in wage distributions between Canada and the United States: an application of a flexible estimator of distribution functions in the presence of covariates. Rev. Econ. Stud. 67(4), 609–633 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Duggal, V.G., Saltzman, C., Williams, M.L.: Recycling: an economic analysis. East. Econ. J. 17(3), 351–358 (1991)Google Scholar
  29. Elhorst, J.P.: Applied spatial econometrics: raising the bar. Spat. Econ. Anal. 2010(5), 9–28 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fiorillo, D.: Household waste recycling: national survey evidence from Italy. J. Environ. Plann. Manag. 56(8), 1125–1151 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Firpo, S., Fortin, N.M., Lemieux, T.: Unconditional quantile regressions. Econometrica 77(3), 953–973 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Firpo, S.P., Fortin, N.M., Lemieux, T.: Decomposing wage distributions using recentered influence function regressions. Econometrics 6(2), 28 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fortin, N.M., Lemieux, T.: Rank regressions, wage distributions, and the gender gap. J. Hum. Resour. 33(3), 610–643 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fortin, N., Lemieux, T., Firpo, S.: Decomposition methods in economics. Handb. Lab. Econ. 4, 1–102 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Garofalo, A., Castellano, R., Punzo, G., Musella, G.: Skills and labour incomes: how unequal is Italy as part of the Southern European countries? Qual. Quant. 52(4), 1471–1500 (2018a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Garofalo, A., Castellano, R., Agovino, M., Punzo, G., Musella, G.: How far is campania from the best-performing region in Italy? A territorial-divide analysis of separate waste collection. Soc. Ind. Res. (2018b).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-018-1936-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Grossman, H. I.: Rival kleptocrats: The mafia versus the state. In: Fiorentini, G., Peltzman, S. (eds.) The Economics of Organised Crime. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 143–160 (1995)Google Scholar
  38. Hage, O., Söderholm, P.: An econometric analysis of regional differences in household waste collection: the case of plastic packaging waste in Sweden. Waste Manag 28(10), 1720–1731 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hampel, F.R.: The influence curve and its role in robust estimation. J.Am. Stat. Assoc. 69, 383–393 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hansen, L.P.: Large sample properties of generalized method of moments estimators. Econom. J. Econom. Soc. 50(4), 1029–1054 (1982)Google Scholar
  41. Hoornweg, D., Bhada-Tata, P.: What a Waste: A Global Review of Solid Waste Management, vol. 15, p. 116. World Bank, Washington (2012)Google Scholar
  42. Hornik, J., Cherian, J., Madansky, M., Narayana, C.: Determinants of recycling behavior: a synthesis of research results. J. Soc. Econ. 24(1), 105–127 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Howes, M.: Politics and the Environment: Risk and the Role of Government and Industry. Routledge, Abingdon (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hsiao, C.: Analysis of Panel Data. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. ISPRA.: Rapporto Rifiuti Urbani—Edizione 2013 (2013). http://www.isprambiente.gov.it/it/pubblicazioni/rapporti/rapporto-rifiuti-urbani-edizione-2013. Accessed 15 Apr 2018
  46. Juhn, C., Murphy, K.M., Pierce, B.: Wage inequality and the rise in returns to skill. J. Polit. Econ. 101(3), 410–442 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kaida, N., Kaida, K.: Pro-environmental behavior correlates with present and future subjective well-being. Environ. Dev. Sustain. 18(1), 111–127 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kelejian, H.H., Prucha, I.R.: A generalized spatial two-stage least squares procedure for estimating a spatial autoregressive model with autoregressive disturbances. J. Real Estate Finance Econ. 17(1), 99–121 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Keser, S., Duzgun, S., Aksoy, A.: Application of spatial and non-spatial data analysis in determination of the factors that impact municipal solid waste generation rates in Turkey. Waste Manag 32(3), 359–371 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kinnaman, T.C.: Policy watch: examining the justification for residential recycling. J. Econ. Perspect. 20(4), 219–232 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kitchen, H.M.: A statistical estimation of an operating cost function for municipal refuse collection. Public Finance Q. 4(1), 56–76 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kohn, M.L.: Introduction. In: Kohn, M.L. (ed.) Cross-National Research in Sociology. Sage, Newbury Park (1989)Google Scholar
  53. Kumar, A., Holuszko, M., Espinosa, D.C.R.: E-waste: an overview on generation, collection, legislation and recycling practices. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 122, 32–42 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lanza, D.R.: Municipal solid waste regulations: an ineffective solution to a national problem. Fordham Urban Law J. 10, 215–245 (1983)Google Scholar
  55. Ledbury, M., Miller, N., Lee, A., Fairman, T., Clifton, C.: Understanding policy options. Home Office Online Report 06/06 (2006)Google Scholar
  56. Legambiente.: La Gestione dei Rifiuti Urbani in Sicilia. A Cura di: Pasquale Nania (2016). http://www.legambientesicilia.it/wp-content/uploads/La-gestione-dei-rifiuti-urbani-in-Sicilia.pdf. Accessed 15 Apr 2018
  57. LeSage, J.P.: An introduction to spatial econometrics. Revue d’économie industrielle 123(3), 19–44 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. LeSage, J.P., Pace, R.K.: Introduction to Spatial Econometrics. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Liu, A., Ren, F., Lin, W.Y., Wang, J.Y.: A review of municipal solid waste environmental standards with a focus on incinerator residues. Int. J. Sustain. Built Environ. 4(2), 165–188 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Livingstone, S.: On the challenges of cross-national comparative media research. Eur. J. Commun. 18(4), 477–500 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lucas, M.T., Wilson, M.A.: Tracking the relationship between environmental management and financial performance in the service industry. Serv. Bus. 2(3), 203–218 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Massari, M.: Ecomafias and waste entrepreneurs in the Italian market. In The 6th Crossborder Crime Colloquium (2004)Google Scholar
  63. Mazzanti, M., Zoboli, R.: Waste generation, waste disposal and policy effectiveness: evidence on decoupling from the European Union. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 52(10), 1221–1234 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mazzanti, M., Zoboli, R.: Resource taxation and regional planning: revenue recycling for local sustainability in the aggregates sector. J. Environ. Plann. Manag. 56(6), 893–916 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mazzanti, M., Montini, A., Zoboli, R.: Municipal waste generation and socioeconomic drivers: evidence from comparing Northern and Southern Italy. J. Environ. Dev. 17(1), 51–69 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mazzanti, M., Montini, A., Nicolli, F.: Waste dynamics in economic and policy transitions: decoupling, convergence and spatial effects. J. Environ. Plann. Manag. 55(5), 563–581 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Musella, G., Agovino, M., Casaccia, M., Crociata, A.: Evaluating waste collection management: the case of macro-areas and municipalities in Italy. Environ. Dev. Sustain. (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-018-0164-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nifo, A., Vecchione, G.: Do institutions play a role in skilled migration? The case of Italy. Reg. Stud. 48(10), 1628–1649 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Noll, K.: Recovery, Recycle and Reuse of Industrial Wastes. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea (1985)Google Scholar
  70. Oates, W.E.: An essay on fiscal federalism. J. Econ. Lit. 37(3), 1120–1149 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Oates, W.E.: A Reconsideration of Environmental Federalism, vol. 439. Resources for the Future, Washington (2001)Google Scholar
  72. Oaxaca, R.: Male-female wage differentials in urban labor markets. Int. Econ. Rev. 14(3), 693–709 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ojea, E., Loureiro, M.L.: Altruistic, egoistic and biospheric values in willingness to pay (WTP) for wildlife. Ecol. Econ. 63(4), 807–814 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Owen, A.L., Videras, J.: Civic cooperation, pro-environment attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Ecol. Econ. 58(4), 814–829 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pace, R.K., LeSage, J.P.: Omitted variables biases of OLS and spatial lag models. In: Páez, A., Le Gallo, J., Buliung, R., Dall’Erba, S. (eds.) Progress in Spatial Analysis: Theory and Computation, and Thematic Applications, pp. 17–28. Springer, Berlin (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Passarini, F., Vassura, I., Monti, F., Morselli, L., Villani, B.: Indicators of waste management efficiency related to different territorial conditions. Waste Manag 31(4), 785–792 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Reschovsky, J.D., Stone, S.E.: Market incentives to encourage household waste recycling: paying for what you throw away. J. Policy Anal. Manag. 13(1), 120–139 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sargan, J.D.: The estimation of economic relationships using instrumental variables. Econ. J. Econ. Soc. 26(3), 393–415 (1958)Google Scholar
  79. Sargan, J.D.: Testing for misspecification after estimating using instrumental variables. Contrib. Econom. 1, 213–235 (1988)Google Scholar
  80. Sarra, A., Mazzocchitti, M., Rapposelli, A.: Evaluating joint environmental and cost performance in municipal waste management systems through data envelopment analysis: scale effects and policy implications. Ecol. Ind. 73, 756–771 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schultz, P.W., Oskamp, S., Mainieri, T.: Who recycles and when? A review of personal and situational factors. J. Environ. Psychol. 15(2), 105–121 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shekdar, A.V.: Sustainable solid waste management: an integrated approach for Asian countries. Waste Manag. 29(4), 1438–1448 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Simões, P., Carvalho, P., Marques, R.C.: Performance assessment of refuse collection services using robust efficiency measures. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 67, 56–66 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Steg, L., Bolderdijk, J.W., Keizer, K., Perlaviciute, G.: An integrated framework for encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: the role of values, situational factors and goals. J. Environ. Psychol. 38, 104–115 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Stevens, G.W.W.: Reduction of waste resulting from mask defects. Solid State Technol. 21(8), 68–72 (1978)Google Scholar
  86. Tabernero, C., Hernández, B.: Self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation guiding environmental behavior. Environ. Behav. 43(5), 658–675 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tonglet, M., Phillips, P.S., Read, A.D.: Using the theory of planned behaviour to investigate the determinants of recycling behaviour: a case study from Brixworth, UK. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 41(3), 191–214 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Truelove, H.B., Carrico, A.R., Weber, E.U., Raimi, K.T., Vandenbergh, M.P.: Positive and negative spillover of pro-environmental behavior: an integrative review and theoretical framework. Glob. Environ. Change 29, 127–138 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tsai, W.T.: Environmental and health risk analysis of nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), a toxic and potent greenhouse gas. J. Hazard. Mater. 159(2–3), 257–263 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Turaga, R.M.R., Howarth, R.B., Borsuk, M.E.: Pro-environmental behavior. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1185(1), 211–224 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Van Poeck, K., Vandenabeele, J.: Learning from sustainable development: education in the light of public issues. Environ. Educ. Res. 18(4), 541–552 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Xiu, L., Gunderson, M.: Glass ceiling or sticky floor? Quantile regression decomposition of the gender pay gap in China. Int. J. Manpow. 35(3), 306–326 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Management and Quantitative StudiesUniversity of Naples “Parthenope”NaplesItaly
  2. 2.Department of Economic and Legal StudiesUniversity of Naples “Parthenope”NaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations