Hepatology International

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 181–190 | Cite as

Spontaneous bacteremia and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis share similar prognosis in patients with cirrhosis: a cohort study

  • Sebastián Marciano
  • Melisa Dirchwolf
  • Carla S. Bermudez
  • Natalia Sobenko
  • Leila Haddad
  • Federico Genre Bert
  • Laura Barcán
  • Astrid Smud
  • Maria Lourdes Posadas-Martínez
  • Diego Giunta
  • Adrián Gadano
Original Article


Background and aims

Spontaneous bacteremia is a poorly characterized infection in patients with cirrhosis. We compared the incidence of mortality and acute kidney injury in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and spontaneous bacteremia, and identified risk factors for mortality and acute kidney injury in patients with spontaneous bacteremia.


We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacteremia or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis from 2008 to 2016 at Hospital Italiano, Buenos Aires. We compared the cumulative incidence of acute kidney injury and death between the two infections, and identified risk factors for these outcomes in patients with spontaneous bacteremia.


Seventy-one patients with spontaneous bacteremia and 55 patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis were included. Most infections were nosocomial. Overall, 26% of bacteria were resistant and 11% multi-resistant. We found no significant association between acute kidney injury [subhazard ratio (sHR) 1.05 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.67–1.63, p = 0.83)] or death [sHR 1.15 (95% CI 0.60–2.20, p = 0.68)] and type of spontaneous infection in multivariate analyses adjusting for basal Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. In patients with spontaneous bacteremia, baseline MELD score was independently associated with acute kidney injury [sHR 1.07 (95% CI 1.03–1.11, p = 0.001)] and death [sHR 1.07 (95% CI 1.02–1.15, p = 0.03)].


Short-term acute kidney injury and mortality rates were similar in patients with spontaneous bacteremia and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Risk assessment of patients with spontaneous bacteremia can be performed with baseline MELD score.


Spontaneous bacteremia Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Outcome Acute kidney injury Mortality 



Acute-on-chronic liver failure


Acute kidney injury


Confidence interval


Hazard ratio


Interquartile ratio


Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae


Model for End-Stage Liver Disease


Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus


Subhazard ratio



We are grateful to Martín O’Flaherty and Matías Tisi Baña for helpful advice and suggestions about the manuscript.

Author contributions

Sebastián Marciano and Melisa Dirchwolf designed the research study and wrote the paper; Carla S. Bermudez, Natalia Sobenko, Leila Haddad, Federico Genre Bert, Laura Barcán, and Astrid Smud performed the research and collected the data; Maria L. Posadas-Martínez and Diego Giunta analyzed the data and provided critical insight; Adrián Gadano contributed to study design and revised/corrected the final manuscript. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript including the authorship list.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Sebastián Marciano, Melisa Dirchwolf, Carla S. Bermudez, Natalia Sobenko, Leila Haddad, Federico Genre Bert, Laura Barcán, Astrid Smud, Maria Lourdes Posadas-Martínez, Diego Giunta, and Adrián Gadano declare that they do not have any conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sebastián Marciano
    • 1
    • 4
  • Melisa Dirchwolf
    • 2
  • Carla S. Bermudez
    • 1
  • Natalia Sobenko
    • 1
  • Leila Haddad
    • 1
  • Federico Genre Bert
    • 1
  • Laura Barcán
    • 3
  • Astrid Smud
    • 3
  • Maria Lourdes Posadas-Martínez
    • 4
  • Diego Giunta
    • 4
  • Adrián Gadano
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Liver UnitHospital ItalianoBuenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Liver UnitHospital Privado de RosarioRosarioArgentina
  3. 3.Infectious Diseases Section, Internal Medicine DepartmentHospital ItalianoBuenos AiresArgentina
  4. 4.Department of ResearchHospital ItalianoBuenos AiresArgentina

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