The Association of IL-1 Alpha Level and TNF Alpha Expressions on Bone Destruction in Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media and Cholesteatoma

Abstract

 Bone destruction in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) and cholesteatoma is considered to be quite high. Bone destruction is caused by various inflammatory cytokines and osteoclasts including IL-1α and TNF-α. The imbalance between the resorption process by osteoclasts and the process of bone formation is also a causative factor for bone destruction. On top of that, the large number of patients is not supported by an equal amount of medical facilities and personnel to conduct operative procedures. To analyze the associated of IL-1α level and TNF-α expression on the severity of bone destruction in CSOM and cholesteatoma patients. The total number of the subjects was 46 patients which group I (TNF-α) consisted of 26 individuals and group II (IL-1α) contained 26 individuals as well. The analysis was conducted in 2 different places (Solo, Indonesia and Surabaya, Indonesia). IL-1α expression was assessed by using ELISA kit at the absorbance rate of 450 nm whereas the rabbit anti-TNF-α polyclonal antibody was applied to examine TNF-α. The assessment of bone destruction was carried out during the operative procedure in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya, Indonesia. Group I assessment resulted in severe bone destruction of 65.39% whilst group II showed severe bone destruction of 65.00%. This study revealed that TNF-α was categorized as strong positive (34.62%), moderate positive (42.30%), weak positive (19.23%), and negative (3.85%) with the value of r = 0.775; p ≤ 0.001. On the other hand, the rate of IL-1α was attained as follows: 14.93 ± 4.36 pg/ml, 22.75 ± 12.18 pg/ml, and 31.98 ± 14.16 pg/ml with the value of r = 0.625; p =  0.003. There is a significant association between expression of TNF-α and IL-1α level on the severity of bone destruction in CSOM and cholesteatoma patients. Hence, it has been proven that it is necessary to develop an additional therapeutic interventions to reduce TNF-α and IL-1α in CSOM and cholesteatoma patients.

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Artono, Surarto, B., Purnami, N. et al. The Association of IL-1 Alpha Level and TNF Alpha Expressions on Bone Destruction in Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media and Cholesteatoma. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 72, 1–7 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12070-019-01704-z

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Keywords

  • CSOM
  • Cholesteatoma
  • IL-1α
  • TNF-α
  • Bone destruction