A Study on Etiopathogenesis of Vocal Cord Paresis and Palsy in a Tertiary Centre
- 29 Downloads
To identify patients of vocal cord paresis and palsy and to establish an etiological diagnosis based on a study performed in a tertiary centre. Study was done prospectively in the Department of ENT in KIMS Hospital, Bangalore, for 1 year, from June 2016 to June 2017. 100 patients with vocal cord paresis and palsy were identified and examined by using various tests and investigations to establish the etiology. Most of the patients presented with complaints of change in voice (92%). Some of the other common presenting complaints included noisy breathing and difficulty in swallowing, difficulty in voice production and vocal fatigue and cough. Unilateral paralysis (82%) was found to be more common than bilateral paralysis (18%), of which left (52%) was more commonly affected than right (48%) vocal cord. The most common age group affected was 51–60 years (24%) followed by 61–70 years (19%). Males (60%) were affected more than females (40%) in a ratio of 3:2 and among the affected males 73% were known smokers. The most common cause of vocal cord paresis and palsy was found to be idiopathic (38%), followed by primary laryngeal growths (27%). Other causes included carcinomas of lung, thyroid and oesophagus, traumatic, inflammatory, systemic diseases like Rheumatoid arthritis, Hypertension leading to stroke. Identifying the exact etiopathogenesis of vocal cord paresis and palsy in patients has been difficult and is very important in order to establish a proper diagnostic and treatment protocol for these patients.
KeywordsVocal cord paresis Palsy Hoarseness Recurrent laryngeal nerve Unilateral Idiopathic
We extend our gratitude to all the faculty members of the department and the management for giving their valuable opinion and suggestions during discussion of the case and also for extending their help towards working towards this article. We extend our gratefulness to all the partcipating patients and their family members for their cooperation and patience during the course of the study. Special mention to Dr. Jagannath, Dr. Smitha, Dr. Nirmala and all the postgraduates and interns for all their support in making this study a success.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies which experiments with human participants or animals and all institutional and international ethical standards have been followed.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 3.Merati AL, Shermani N, Smith TL, Toohill RJ (2006) Changing trends in the nature of vocal fold impairment. Am J Otolaryngol Head Neck Med Surg 27:106–108Google Scholar
- 4.Ahmad S, Ajaz M, Lateef M (2002) A study incidence and etiopathology of vocal cord paralysis. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 54:294–296Google Scholar
- 6.Glazer HS (1983) Extralaryngeal causes of vocal cord paralysis: CT evaluation. Am J Radiol 141:527–531Google Scholar
- 7.Nerurkar N, Tandon S, Kiran K, Joshi A, Gharat P, Bradoo R (2006) Unilateral vocal cord paralysis: an Indian scenario. Bombay Hosp J 48(4):561–567Google Scholar
- 9.Hollinger LD, Hollinger PC, Hollinger PH (1976) Etiology of bilateral abductor vocal cord paralysis: a review of 389 cases. Ann Otol 85:428–436Google Scholar
- 12.Ko HC, Lee LA, Li HY, Fang TJ (2009) Etiologic features in patients with unilateral vocal cord paralysis in Taiwan. Chang Gung Med J 32:290–296Google Scholar
- 13.Srirompotong S, Sae-Seow P, Srirompotong S (2001) the cause and evaluation of unilateral vocal cord paralysis. J Med Assoc Thai 84(6):855–858Google Scholar
- 14.Bulteau V (1973) The aetiology of bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Med J Aust 2:776–777Google Scholar
- 21.Irfan M, Jihan WS, Shahid H (2010) Unusual presentation of a solitary thyroid cyst. Ann Acad Med Singap 39:68–69Google Scholar
- 23.Brown WF, Bolton CF, Aminoff MJ (2002) Neuromuscular function and disease: basic, clinical and electrodiagnostic aspects, Chapter 104. W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, pp 1857–1865Google Scholar
- 24.Yu-Ting Hsu M, 1, Sheng-Po Hao, MD, FACS, FICSI 2, 1 Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei T, 2 Medical College of Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei T. Intubation related Vocal Cord Palsy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 153(2):189Google Scholar
- 26.Nama RK, Bhosale GP, Butala BP, Sharma AR (2015) Bilateral adductor vocal cord palsy: complication of prolonged intraoperative hypotension after endotracheal intubation. Middle East J Anaesthesiol 23(3):339–342Google Scholar
- 29.Gune A, Kale P, Patankar R, Mathur SK (2016) Bilateral adductor vocal cord palsy: complication of prolonged endo tracheal intubation. Int J Health Sci Res 6(8):395–397Google Scholar