Skip to main content


Log in

A Cooperative Regional Economic System for Sustainable Resilience Policy

  • Published:
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy Aims and scope Submit manuscript


This paper examines a regional economic model within the framework of welfare economics under various economic and spatial constraints. These constraints include decreased local budgets, limited conditions for markets for goods and services, markets for factors of production, public goods, and fewer opportunities of agglomeration economies. In many areas of a given region, such constraints can be more evident, partly because of external forces of severe economic competition among different regions and countries. Unless effective planning and policy remedies are considered, these regions may cause obstacles to pursuing stable and sustainable growth and development. This paper presents the sustainable resilience policy of a generalised framework of smart planning strategy that uses an intra- and inter-regionally coordinated cooperative networking system. The regional economic model used in this paper reveals that the system may work sufficiently only if the scale and scope of coordination are optimally organised because of the presence of the barriers of physical distance; complexity of contracts; and other economic, spatial, and administrative restrictions. Our scenario enables the region not only to passively receive incoming external economies but also to actively discharge the spill-over effect to others, which forces involved economic agents to cooperate rather than compete.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Arrow, K. J. (1950). A difficulty in the concept of social welfare. J Political Economy, 58, 328–346

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arrow, K. J., & Scitovsky, T. (1969). Readings in welfare economics. Northampton: Richard D. Irwin Inc

    Google Scholar 

  • Capello, R. (2015). Regional economics (2nd ed.). London: Routledge

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Dixit, A. K., & Stiglitz, J. E. (1977). Monopolistic competition and optimum product diversity. American Economic Review, 67, 297–308

    Google Scholar 

  • Ethier, W. J. (1982). National and international returns to scale in the modern theory of international trade. American Economic Review, 72, 389–405

    Google Scholar 

  • Hanley, N., Shogren, J., & White, B. (2007). Environmental economics: In theory and practice (2nd ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan

    Google Scholar 

  • Israilevich, P. R., Hewings, G. J. D., Sonis, M., & Schindler, G. R. (1997). Forecasting structural change with a regional econometric input-output model. J Regional Sci, 37, 565–590

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Little, I. M. D. (1957). A critique of welfare economics (2nd ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press

    Google Scholar 

  • Marshall, A. (1892). Economics of Industry (3rd ed.). London: Macmillan and Co Limited

    Google Scholar 

  • Nakamura, D. (2010). Spatial competition and consumer exclusion: Social welfare perspectives in central-place system. Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, 3, 101–110

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nakamura, D. (2016). Alternative spatial structure for sustainable rural economy: A note on socially optimal firm location. International Regional Science Review, 41, 86–102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pigou, A. C. (1932). Economics of Welfare (4th ed.). London: Macmillan

    Google Scholar 

  • Parr, J. B. (2002). Missing elements in the analysis of agglomeration economies. International Regional Sci Review, 25, 151–168

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parr, J. B. (2015). The city and the region as contrasts in spatial organization. Annals of Regional Science, 54, 797–817

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sonis, M. (2006). Central place theory after Christaller and Lösch: Some further explorations. in Blum U, Funck RH, Kowalski JS, Kuklinski A, Rothengatter W (eds) Space-Structure-Economy: A Tribute to August Lösch, 2nd revised and extended edition, Nomos Verlag, Baden Baden

  • Vickerman, R. W. (1991). Other regions’ infrastructure in a region’s development. In R. W. Vickerman (Ed.), Infrastructure and Regional Development - European Research in Regional Science. London: Pion Limited

    Google Scholar 

  • Weber, A. (1909). [1928]) Über den Standort der Industrien. Mohr, Tübingen. English edition: Weber A (1928) Alfred Weber’s Theory of the Location of Industries (trans: Friedrich CJ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Daisuke Nakamura.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Nakamura, D. A Cooperative Regional Economic System for Sustainable Resilience Policy. Appl. Spatial Analysis 16, 1001–1011 (2023).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: