This paper presents a ‘studio’ that facilitates the spatial analysis and modelling of internal migration in any country, dependent upon the provision of an origin–destination matrix of migration flows between a set of basic spatial units plus corresponding populations at risk and digital boundaries. Migration analysts undertaking comparative analysis of internal migration in different countries are confronted with problem that each country has a unique set of sub-national regions. In this paper, we outline the various features of the studio and show how its aggregation and modelling functions have been used to produce substantive results that confront the MAUP challenge. Results show varying systematic trends in the scale and zonation effects of the frictional effect of distance on migration and on the mean distance moved in a selection of northern European countries.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Bell, M., Blake, M., Boyle, P., Duke-Williams, O., Rees, P., Stillwell, J., & Hugo, G. (2002). Cross-national comparison of internal migration: issues and measures. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A, 165(2), 1–30.
Bell, M., Charles-Edwards, E., Kupiszewski, M., Kupiszewska, D., Stillwell, J. and Zhu, Y. (2014) Internal migration around the world: Assessing contemporary practice, Population, Space and Place (forthcoming).
Bernard, A., & Bell, M. (2012). A comparison of internal migration age profile smoothing methods, Working Paper 2012/01, Queensland Centre of Population Research. Brisbane: University of Queensland.
Champion, A., Fotheringham, A. S., Rees, P., Boyle, P., & Stillwell, J. (1998). The Determinants of Migration Flows in England: A Review of Existing Sources and Data, Report for the Department of the Environment. Newcastle: Department of Geography, University of Newcastle.
Daras, K. (2006). An information statistics approach to zone design in the geography of health outcomes and provision, PhD Thesis, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne.
Daras, K. (2014) IMAGE Studio 1.0 User Manual, School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds (available from the author).
Fotheringham, A. S., Rees, P., Champion, T., Kalogirou, S., & Tremayne, A. R. (2004). The development of a migration model for England and Wales: overview and modelling out-migration. Environment and Planning, A36(9), 1633–1672.
Greenwood, M. J. (1993). Internal migration in developed countries. In M. R. Rosenzweig & O. Stark (Eds.), Population and family economics (Vol. 1A, pp. 647–720). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Hampton, J. (Ed.). (1998). Internally displaced people a global survey. London: Earthscan.
Lomax, N., Norman, P., Rees, P., & Stillwell, J. (2013). Sub-national migration in the United Kingdom: producing a consistent time series using a combination of available data and estimates. Journal of Population Research, 30, 265–288.
Long, L. (1988). Migration and residential mobility in the United States. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Nam, C. B., Serow, W. J., & Sly, D. F. (1990). International handbook on internal migration. Westport: Greenwood Press.
Norwegian Refugee Council. (2007). Internal displacement global overview of trends and developments in 2006, internal displacement monitoring centre. Geneva: Norwegian Refugee Council.
ODPM. (2002). The Development of a Migration Model, Research Report. London: Office of the Deputy Prime Minister.
Openshaw, S. (1977). Algorithm 3: A procedure to generate pseudo-random aggregations of N spatial units into M spatial units, where M is less than N. Environment and Planning A, 9, 1423–1428.
Openshaw, S. (1984). The modifiable areal unit problem, Concepts and Techniques in Modern Geography (Vol. 38). Norwich: GeoBooks.
Plane, D. A., & Mulligan, G. F. (1997). Measuring spatial focusing in a migration system. Demography, 34, 251–262.
Rees, P. H. (1977). The measurement of migration from census data and other sources" Environment and Planning A, 9(3), 247–272.
Rees, P. H., Fotheringham, A. S., & Champion, A. G. (2004). Modelling migration for policy analysis. In G. Clarke & J. Stillwell (Eds.), Applied GIS and Spatial Analysis (pp. 259–296). Chichester: Wiley.
Rees, P., Stillwell, J., Convey, A., & Kupiszewski, M. (Eds.). (1996). Population Migration in the European Union. Chichester: Wiley.
Rogers, A., & Castro, L. J. (1978). Model migration schedules, RR-81-30, International Institute for applied systems analysis. Austria: Laxenburg.
Stillwell, J., & Congdon, P. (Eds.). (1991). Migration models: Macro and micro approaches. London: Belhaven Press.
Stillwell, J. (1991). Spatial interaction models and the propensity to migrate over distance. In J. Stillwell & P. Congdon (Eds.), Migration models: Macro and micro approaches. London: Belhaven Press.
Stillwell, J. (2008). Inter-regional migration modelling: a review. In J. Poot, B. Waldorf, & L. van Wissen (Eds.), Migration and human capital (pp. 29–48). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Stillwell, J., Bell, M., Blake, M., Duke-Williams, O., & Rees, P. (2000). A comparison of net migration flows and migration effectiveness in Australia and Britain. Journal of Population Research, 17(1), 17–41.
Stillwell, J., Duke-Williams, O., & Dennett, A. (Eds.). (2010). Technologies for Migration and Commuting Analysis Spatial Interaction Data Applications. Hershey: IGI Global.
Tobler, W. (1970). A computer movie simulating urban growth in the Detroit region. Economic Geography, 46(2), 234–240.
Todaro, M. (1980). Internal migration in developing countries: a survey. In R. A. Easterlin (Ed.), Population and economic change in developing countries (pp. 361–402). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wilson, A. G. (1970). Entropy in urban and regional modelling. London: Pion.
Zipf, G. K. (1946). The P1P2/D hypothesis: On intercity movement of persons. American Sociological Review, 11, 677–686.
This research is funded by Australian Research Council Discovery Project DP11010136 Comparing Internal Migration Around the World (2011–2014). Thanks to Tom Wilson for sharing his spatial aggregation code (MIRAGE) with us and to Oliver Duke-Williams for providing his code to compute migration indicators (MIGCONC) and for the upgrading and extension work that he has done on the spatial interaction model code (ASPIC) first written by John Stillwell. We are grateful to Emma Lundholm for providing the Swedish data. Data for Germany were downloaded from the Federal Statistical Office (Destatis) and for Finland from Statistics Finland (StatFin). 2001 Census data for the UK were obtained from the Office for National Statistics, 2011 Census: Aggregate and Interaction data (UKs) [computer files] downloaded via the UK Data Service Census Support.
About this article
Cite this article
Stillwell, J., Daras, K., Bell, M. et al. The IMAGE Studio: A Tool for Internal Migration Analysis and Modelling. Appl. Spatial Analysis 7, 5–23 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12061-014-9104-4
- Internal migration
- Area aggregation
- Migration indicators