Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 231–251 | Cite as

The Impact of Geographical Scale in Identifying Areas as Possible Sites for Area-Based Interventions to Tackle Poverty: The Case of Montréal

  • Anne-Marie Séguin
  • Philippe Apparicio
  • Mylène Riva
Article

Abstract

Many studies in geography have demonstrated that results can vary according to scale and configuration of spatial units. However, implications of the MAUP—Modifiable Area Unit Problem—have received little attention in urban planning and policy studies. The first objective of this paper is to demonstrate how identification of poor areas (residential areas with 40% or more of low-income population) is sensitive to changes in scale. The second objective is to measure the completeness (to what degree targeting only poor areas is adequate to reach all the poor population of a metropolis) and the efficiency (to what degree the population benefitting from targeted interventions is poor) of area-based interventions. The methodology to identify poverty areas is based on three spatial levels of analysis: dissemination areas (DAs), census tracts (CTs) and districts, namely micro, meso and macro levels. Hierarchical linear models are used to analyze the variance partitioned between these levels. Results of multilevel analyses demonstrate that CTs are more heterogeneous on the basis of DAs than Zones according to CTs. Independently of the scale of analysis, results show that the majority of low income population is living in areas with no poverty concentration in Montréal (completeness dimension). Moreover, results show that about half of the population living in zones of poverty concentration is not poor even when micro-zones are used for measurement (efficiency dimension). These results illustrate the importance of scale in identifying poverty areas which also have implications for social policy interventions.

Keywords

Urban poverty Poverty concentration MAUP Multilevel analysis Montreal, Canada 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This study has been funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC).

References

  1. Ades, J., Apparicio, P., & Séguin, A.-M. (2009). Assiste-t-on à l’émergence de nouvelles formes de distribution de la pauvreté dans les grandes métropoles canadiennes? (p. 41). Montréal: INRS-UCS, Les Inédits (working paper).Google Scholar
  2. Andersson, R., & Musterd, S. (2005). Area-based policies: a critical appraisal. Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie, 96(4), 377–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Apparicio, P. (2006). L’identification et la qualification des espaces de pauvreté à Montréal. Cahiers de Géographie du Québec, 50(141), 523–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Apparicio, P., & Séguin, A.-M. (2008). L’accessibilité aux services de proximité dans les espaces de pauvreté de l’île de Montréal. In M. Thériault & F. D. Rosiers (Eds.), Information géographique et dynamiques urbaines (pp. 68–89). Paris: Hermès-Lavosier.Google Scholar
  5. Apparicio, P., Cloutier, M. S., & Shearmur, R. (2007a). The case of Montréal’s missing food deserts: evaluation of accessibility to food supermarkets. International Journal of Health Geographics, 6(4).Google Scholar
  6. Apparicio, P., Leloup, X., & Rivet, P. (2007b). La diversité montréalaise à l’épreuve de la ségrégation: pluralisme et insertion résidentielle des immigrants. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 8(1), 63–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Apparicio, P., Séguin, A.-M., & Leloup, X. (2007c). Modélisation spatiale de la pauvreté à Montréal: apport méthodologique de la régression géographiquement pondérée. The Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe Canadien, 51(4), 412–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Atkinson, R., & Kintrea, K. (2001). Disentangling area effects: evidence from deprived and non-deprived neighbourhoods. Urban Studies, 38(12), 2277–2298.Google Scholar
  9. Bacqué, M.-H., Divay, G., Rose, D., Séguin, A.-M., & Sénécal, G. (2003). Survol de quelques politiques de revitalisation urbaine. Montréal: INRS Urbanisation, Culture et Société.Google Scholar
  10. Batey, P., Brown, P., & Pemberton, S. (2008). Methods for the spatial targeting of urban policy in the UK: a comparative analysis. Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy, 1(2), 117–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bradford, M. G., Robson, B. T., & Tye, R. (1995). Constructing an urban deprivation index: a way of meeting the need for flexibility. Environment and Planning A, 27(4), 519–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Broadway, M. J. (1998). Differences in inner-city deprivation: an analysis of seven Canadian cities. The Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe Canadien, 36(2), 189–196.Google Scholar
  13. Broadway, M. J., & Jesty, G. (1998). Are Canadian inner cities becoming more dissimilar? An analysis of urban deprivation indicators. Urban Studies, 35(9), 1423–1438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Canadian Council on Social Development. (2001). Defining and re-defining poverty. A CCSD perspective. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Social Development.Google Scholar
  15. Chekki, D. A. (1999). Poverty amidst plenty: how do Canadian cities cope with rising poverty? Research in Community Sociology, 9, 141–152.Google Scholar
  16. Cheshire, P. (2007). Segregated neighbourhoods and mixed communities: A critical analysis. London: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.Google Scholar
  17. Comité de gestion de la taxe scolaire de l’Île de Montréal. (2003). Défavorisation des familles avec enfants en milieu montréalais: Comité de gestion de la taxe scolaire de l’Île de Montréal.Google Scholar
  18. Cooke, T., & Marchant, S. (2006). The changing intrametropolitan location of high-poverty neighbourhoods in the US, 1990–2000. Urban Studies, 43(11), 1971–1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. De Groot-Maggetti, G. (2002). A measure of poverty in Canada. Toronto: Public Justice Resource Centre.Google Scholar
  20. Dietz, R. D. (2002). The estimation of neighborhood effects in the social sciences: an interdisciplinary approach. Social Science Research, 31(4), 539–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Divay, G., Bernard, P., Hamel, P. J., Rose, D., Séguin, A.-M., & Sénécal, G. (2004). Projet pilote de revitalisation intégrée. Démarche d’évaluation. Montréal: INRS Urbanisation, Culture et Société.Google Scholar
  22. Drouilly, P. (1996). L’espace social de Montréal, 1951–1991. Sillery: Septentrion.Google Scholar
  23. Dupéré, V., Lacourse, É., Willms, J. D., Vitaro, F., & Tremblay, R. E. (2007). Affiliation to youth gangs during adolescence: the interaction between childhood psychopathic tendencies and neighborhood disadvantage. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(6), 1035–1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ellen, I. G., & Turner, M. A. (1997). Does neighborhood matter? Assessing recent evidence. Housing Policy Debate, 8(4), 833–866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. European Commission. (2008). Child poverty and well-being in the EU. Current status and way forward: European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities.Google Scholar
  26. Fieldhouse, E. A., & Tye, R. (1996). Deprived people or deprived places? Exploring the ecological fallacy in studies of deprivation with the samples of anonymised records. Environment and Planning A, 28(2), 237–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fotheringham, A. S., & Wong, D. W. S. (1991). The modifiable areal unit problem in multivariate statistical analysis. Environment & Planning A, 23(7), 1025–1044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Galobardes, B., Lynch, J., & Smith, G. D. (2007). Measuring socioeconomic position in health research. British Medical Bulletin, 81–82(1), 21–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Golberg, M., & Pulkingham, J. (2000). Defining and measuring poverty in Canada. University of Northern British Columbia: Child Welfare Research Center.Google Scholar
  30. Greene, R. (1991). Poverty concentration measures and the urban underclass. Economic Geography, 67(3), 240–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grengs, J. (2007). Reevaluating poverty concentration with spatial analysis: Detroit in the 1990S. Urban Geography, 28(4), 340–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hall, P., & Pfeiffer, U. (2000). Urban future 21: A global agenda for twenty-first century cities. London: E & FN Spon.Google Scholar
  33. Harris, R. J., & Longley, P. A. (2002). Creating small area measures of urban deprivation. Environment and Planning A, 34(6), 1073–1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Heisz, A., & McLeod, L. (2004). Low income in census metropolitan areas, 1980–2000. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  35. Hertzman, C., McLean, S. A., Kohen, D. E., Dunn, J., & Evans, T. (2002). Early development in Vancouver: Report of the community asset mapping project. Vancouver: HELP (Human Early Learning Partnership), University of British Columbia.Google Scholar
  36. Jargowsky, P. (2003). Stunning progress, bidden problems: The dramatic decline of concentrated poverty in the 1990’s. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  37. Jelinski, D. E., & Wu, J. (1996). The modifiable areal unit problem and implications for landscape ecology. Landscape Ecology, 11(3), 129–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kasarda, J. D. (1990). Structural factors affecting the location and timing of urban underclass growth. Urban Geography, 11(3), 234–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kearns, A., Gibb, K., & Mackay, D. (2000). Area deprivation in Scotland: a new assessment. Urban Studies, 37(9), 1535–1559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kingsley, G. T., & Pettit, K. L. S. (2002). Population growth and decline in city neighborhoods. Washington D.C.: The Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  41. Langlois, A., & Kitchen, P. (2001). Identifying and measuring dimensions of urban deprivation in Montreal: an analysis of the 1996 census data. Urban Studies, 38(1), 119–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lee, K. (2000). Urban poverty in Canada. A statistical profile. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Social Development.Google Scholar
  43. Leloup, X., Apparicio, P., & Séguin, A.-M. (2005). Le concept de relative deprivation: Survol des définitions et des tentatives de mesures appliquées à l’urbain. Montréal: INRS-UCS, Les Inédits.Google Scholar
  44. Lemelin, A., & Morin, R. (1991). L’approche locale et communautaire au développement économique des zones défavorisées: le cas de Montréal. Cahiers de Géographie du Québec, 35, 285–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). The neighborhoods they live in: the effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126(2), 309–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ley, D., & Smith, H. (1997). Immigration and poverty in Canadian cities, 1971–1991. Journal of Regional Science, 20(1–2), 29–48.Google Scholar
  47. Ley, D., & Smith, H. (2000). Relations between deprivation and immigrant groups in large Canadian cities. Urban Studies, 37(1), 37–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Longley, P. A., & Tobón, C. (2004). Spatial dependence and heterogeneity in patterns of hardship: an intra-urban analysis. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 94(3), 503–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Madden, J. F. (2003). The changing spatial concentration of income and poverty among suburbs of large US Metropolitan areas. Urban Studies, 40(3), 481–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Manley, D., Flowerdew, R., & Steel, D. (2006). Scales, levels and processes: studying spatial patterns of British census variables. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 30, 143–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mayer-Renaud, M., & Renaud, J. (1989). La distribution de la pauvreté et de la richesse dans la région de Montréal en 1989. Montréal: Centre de Services Sociaux du Montréal Métropolitain.Google Scholar
  52. Myles, J., Picot, G., & Pyper, W. (2000). Neighbourhood inequality in Canadian cities. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  53. Noble M., Wright G., Dibben C., et al. (2004). Indices of Deprivation 2004: Report to the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. London: Neighbourhood Renewal Unit.Google Scholar
  54. Noble, M., Wright, G., Smith, G., & Dibben, C. (2006). Measuring multiple deprivation at the small-area level. Environment and Planning A, 38(1), 169–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Oberti, M. (2000). Diversity and complexity in local forms of urban anti-poverty strategies in Europe. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 24(3), 536–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Openshaw, S. (1984). Ecological fallacies and the analysis of areal census data (UK, Italy). Environment & Planning A, 16(1), 17–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Oreopoulos, P. (2002). Do neighbourhoods influence long-term labour market success? A comparison of adults who grew in different public housing projects. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  58. Overman, H. G. (2002). Neighbourhood effects in large and small neighbourhoods. Urban Studies, 39(1), 117–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Palmer, G., MacInnes, T., & Kenway, P. (2008). Monitoring poverty and social exclusion 2008. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.Google Scholar
  60. Pampalon, R., & Raymond, G. (2000). A deprivation index for health and welfare planning in Quebec. Chronic Diseases in Canada, 21(3), 104–113.Google Scholar
  61. Pampalon, R., Gamache, P., & Hamel, D. (2010). Indice de défavorisation matérielle et sociale du Québec: Suivi méthodologique de 1991 à 2006. Québec: Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec.Google Scholar
  62. Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, Advanced Quantitative Techniques in the Social Sciences.Google Scholar
  63. Reynolds, H., & Amrhein, C. (1997). Using a spatial data set generator in an empirical analysis of aggregation effects on univariate statistics. Geographical and Environmental Modelling, 1(2), 199–219.Google Scholar
  64. Rose, D., & Villeneuve, P. (1998). Engendering class in the metropolitan city: occupational pairings and income disparities among two-earner couples. Urban Geography, 19(2), 123–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ross, N. A., Houle, C., Dunn, J. R., & Aye, M. (2004). Dimensions and dynamics of residential segregation by income in urban Canada, 1991–1996. The Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe Canadien, 48(4), 433–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sampson, R. J., Morenoff, J. D., & Gannon-Rowley, T. (2002). Assessing “neighborhood effects”: social processes and new directions in research. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 443–478.Google Scholar
  67. Séguin, A.-M. (1998). Les espaces de pauvreté. In C. Manzagol & C. R. Bryant (Eds.), Montréal 2001: Visages et défis d’une métropole (pp. 221–236). Montréal: Presses de l’Université de Montréal.Google Scholar
  68. Séguin, A.-M., & Divay, G. (2004). Lutte territorialisée à la pauvreté: examen critique du modèle de revitalisation urbaine intégrée. Lien Social et Politiques, 52, 67–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Séguin, A.-M., & Termote, M. (1997). L’appauvrissement des populations québécoise et montréalaise. Montréal: INRS Urbanisation.Google Scholar
  70. Sessoms, N. J., & Wolch, J. R. (2008). Measuring concentrated poverty in a global metropolis: lessons from Los Angeles. The Professional Geographer, 60(1), 70–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Short, J. R., Hanlon, B., & Vicino, T. J. (2007). The decline of inner suburbs: the new suburban gothic in the United States. Geography Compass, 1(3), 641–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Small, M. L., & Newman, K. (2001). Urban poverty after the truly disadvantaged: the rediscovery of the family, the neighborhood, and culture. Annual Review of Sociology, 27, 23–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Strobel, P. (1996). De la pauvreté à l’exclusion: société salariale ou société des droits de l’homme? Revue Internationale des Sciences Sociales, 148, 201–218.Google Scholar
  74. Townsend, P. (1979). Poverty in the United Kingdom. Harmondsworth: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  75. Townsend, P. (1993). The international analysis of poverty. New York: Harvester/Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  76. Townsend, P. (1987). Deprivation. Journal of Social Policy, 16(2), 125–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tranmer, M., & Steel, D. G. (2001a). Using local census data to investigate scale effects. In N. J. Tate & P. M. Atkinson (Eds.), Modelling scale in geographical information science (pp. 105–122). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  78. Tranmer, M., & Steel, D. (2001b). Ignoring a level in a multilevel model: evidence from UK census data. Environment and Planning A, 33(5), 941–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tunstall, R., & Lupton, R. (2003). Is targeting deprived areas an effective means to reach poor people? An assessment of one rationale for area-based funding programmes. London: Center for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics, CASE paper 70.Google Scholar
  80. United Way of Greater Toronto & Canadian Council on Social Development. (2004). Poverty by Postal Code. The Geography of Neighbourhood Poverty 1981–2001. Toronto: United Way of Greater Toronto.Google Scholar
  81. van Ham, M., & Manley, D. (2010). The effect of neighbourhood housing tenure mix on labour market outcomes: a longitudinal investigation of neighbourhood effects. Journal of Economic Geography, 10, 257–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Villeneuve, P., & Rose, D. (1988). Gender and the separation of employment from home in metropolitan Montréal, 1971–1981. Urban Geography, 9(2), 155–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Von Maltzahn, R., & Durrheim, K. (2008). Is poverty multidimensional? A comparison of income and asset based measures in five Southern African countries. Social Indicators Research, 86(1), 149–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Willms, D. J. (2001). Three hypotheses about community effects on social outcomes. Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 2(1), 53–62.Google Scholar
  85. Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  86. Wong, D., & Amrhein, C. (1996). Research on the MAUP: old wine in a new bottle or real breakthrough? Geographical Systems, 3(2–3), 73–76.Google Scholar
  87. Wratten, E. (1995). Conceptualizing urban poverty. Environment and Urbanization, 7(1), 11–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne-Marie Séguin
    • 1
  • Philippe Apparicio
    • 2
  • Mylène Riva
    • 3
  1. 1.Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Urbanisation Culture SociétéMontréalCanada
  2. 2.Spatial Analysis and Regional Economics LaboratoryInstitut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Urbanisation Culture SociétéMontréalCanada
  3. 3.Axe Santé des Populations et Environnementale, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec and Université LavalQuébecCanada

Personalised recommendations