Skip to main content

Spatial Analysis of Forestry Related Disturbance on Westslope Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi): Implications for Policy and Management

Abstract

A landscape scale analysis of anthropogenic and natural disturbance indicates a significant negative relationship between the cumulative effects of forestry-related activities and the relative abundance of westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi, cutthroat trout) in southeastern British Columbia. Cutthroat trout abundance within 6 Kootenay River headwater streams ranged from 0.00 to 0.0325 fish/m2. Univariate analyses within a blocked regression design resulted in statistically significant (p < 0.05) negative relationships between cutthroat trout abundance and road density, roads on erodible soils, roads within near-stream zones and two measures of logging to the stream bank. There was no statistically significant relationship between cutthroat trout abundance and equivalent clear-cut area (km2/km2). Roads over erodible soils within near-stream zones emerged as the most significant individual variable. A multivariate model to predict cutthroat trout abundance included roads within near stream zones and recent logging adjacent to streams. Evidence from this study indicates that logging of non-fish bearing perennial and ephemeral streams is likely a key factor that has negative downstream effects on cutthroat trout abundance. Contrary to many conventional forest management approaches, this study suggests that considering the spatial distribution of disturbance is at least as important as the total amount of disturbance and that disturbance types can accumulate to produce negative effects on cutthroat trout abundance. The forestry-fish relationships that result from this project provide guidance for forest policy and planning, fish habitat monitoring and cutthroat trout conservation management.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Anderson, P. G. (1998). Sediment generation from forestry operations and associated effects on aquatic ecosystems. Forest-fish conference: land management practises affecting aquatic ecosystems. Calgary: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Barrett, J. C., Alden, H. G., et al. (1998). Geologic influences on the response of stream channels to timber-harvest related impacts. Forest-fish conference: Land management practises affecting aquatic ecosystems, Calgary, Alberta, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service.

  3. Baxter, B. V., Frissell, C. A., et al. (1999). Geomorphology, logging roads, and the distribution of bull trout spawning in a forested river basin: implications for management and conservation. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 128(5), 854–867.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. BCMoF. (1995a). Biodiversity guidebook. Forest practices code of British Columbia. Victoria: BC Ministry of Forests. 99 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  5. BCMoF. (1995b). Interior watershed assessment procedure guidebook. Forest practices code of British Columbia (p. 99 pp). Victoria: BC Ministry of Forests.

    Google Scholar 

  6. BCMoF. (1995c). Riparian management zone guidebook. Forest practices code of British Columbia (p. 68). Victoria: BC Ministry of Forests.

    Google Scholar 

  7. BCFisheries. (2001). Reconnaissance (1:20,000) fish and fish habitat inventory: Standards and procedures. Victoria: BC Fisheries. 170 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  8. BCMoE. (2002). Interim wildlife guidelines for commercial recreation: Sources of human-caused disturbance. Victoria: Government of British Columbia. 11 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bescheta, R. L., Frissell, C. A., et al. (1995). Wildfire and salvage logging: Reccommendations for ecologically sound post-fire salvage logging management and other post-fire treatments on federal lands in the West. Accessed 2005 http://inr.oregonstate.edu/download/beschta_report_1995.pdf, from http://inr.oregonstate.edu/download/beschta_report_1995.pdf.

  10. Bisson, P. A., Raphael, M. G., et al. (2002). Influence of site and landscape features on vertebrate assemblages in small streams. U S Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station General Technical Report PNW GTR 563: 61–72.

  11. Carver, M. (2001). Riparian forest management for protection of aquatic values: Literature review and synthesis. Nelson, BC, Prepared for: Forest Stewardship Council, Riparian sub-committee, BC Regional Standards Team. 48 p.

  12. Costello, A. B., & Rubidge, E. (2003). COSEWIC Status Report on Cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki spp.)—Submitted Draft. Vancouver, BC., Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 73 pp.

  13. Creasey, J. R. (1998). Cumulative effects and the wellsite approval process (p. 198). Calgary: Faculty of graduate studies, University of Calgary.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Creque, S. M., Rutherford, E. S., et al. (2005). Use of GIS-derived landscape-scale habitat features to explain spatial patterns of fish density in Michigan Rivers. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 25(3), 1411–1425.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Dunnigan, J. L., Bennett, D. H. et al. (1998). Effects of forest management on westslope cutthroat trout distribution and abundance in the coeur d'alene river system, Idaho, U.S.A. In M. K. Brewin & D. M. A. Monita (Eds.), Forest-fish Conference: Land management practices affecting aquatic ecosystems. Calgary, Alberta, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service.

  16. Dunham, J. B., & Vinyard, G. L. (1997). Incorporating stream level variability into analyses of site level fish habitat relationships: some cautionary examples. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 126(2), 323–329.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Dunham, J.-B., Young, M.-K. et al. (2003). Effects of fire on fish populations: Landscape perspectives on persistence of native fishes and nonnative fish invasions. Forest Ecology and Management.

  18. Dwire, K. A., & Kauffman, J. B. (2003). Fire and riparian ecosystems in landscapes of the western USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 178(1–2 SU), 61–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Eaglin, G. S., & Hubert, W. A. (1993). Effects of logging and roads on substrate and trout in streams of the Medicine Bow National Forest, Wyoming. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 13(4), 844–846.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. ESRI. (2002). ArcGIS Software version 8.1. Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. Redlands, California.

  21. Fausch, K. D., Torgersen, C. E., et al. (2002). Landscapes to riverscapes: bridging the gap between research and conservation of stream fishes. BioScience, 52(6), 483–498.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Frissell, C. A., Liss, W. J., et al. (1986). A heirarchical framework for stream habitat classification: viewing streams in a watershed context. Environmental Management, 10, 199–214.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Gresswell, R. E. (1999). Fire and aquatic ecosystems in forested biomes of North America. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 128(2), 193–221.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Harig, A. L., & Fausch, K. D. (2002). Minimum habitat requirements for establishing translocated cutthroat trout populations. Ecological Applications, 12(2), 535–551.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Hilderbrand, R. H., & Kershner, J. L. (2000). Movement patterns of stream-resident cutthroat trout in Beaver Creek, Idaho-Utah. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 129(5), 1160–1170.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Huntington, C. W. (1998). Streams and Salmonid assemblages within roaded and unroaded landscapes in the Clearwater River Sub-basin, Idaho. In M. K. Brewin & D. M. A. Monita (Eds.), Forest-fish conference: Land management practices affecting aquatic ecosystems. Calgary: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Karr, J. R., Rhodes, J. J., et al. (2004). The effects of postfire salvage logging on aquatic ecosystems in the American West. Biologica, 54(11), 1029–1033.

    Google Scholar 

  28. King, R. S., Baker, M. E., et al. (2005). Spatial considerations for linking watershed land cover to ecological indicators in streams. Ecological Applications, 15(1), 137–153.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Kondolf, G. M., Piegay, H., et al. (2002). Channel response to increased and decreased bedload supply from land use change: contrasts between two catchments. Geomorphology, 45(1–2), 35–51.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Leary, R. F., Dotson, T., et al. (1995). Westslope cutthroat trout restoration program: Past and present distribution, brood stock program, and conservation genetics committee report. Accessed March 2, 2003.

  31. Liknes, G. A., & Graham, P. J. (1988). Westslope cutthroat trout in Montana: Life history, status and management. status and management of interior stocks of cutthroat trout. In R. E. Gresswell (Ed.), Bethesda, Maryland. American Fisheries Society Symposium 4, 61–71.

  32. Meidinger, D., & Pojar, J. (1991). Ecosystems of British Columbia. British Columbia Ministry of Forests. 330 pp. http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/Docs/Srs/SRseries.htm.

  33. Paul, A. J., & Post, J. R. (2001). Spatial distribution of native and nonnative salmonids in streams of the eastern slopes of the Canadian rocky mountains. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 130(3), 417–430.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Pess, G. R., Steel, M. E. A., et al. (2002). Landscape charactaristics, land use and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) abundance, Snohomish River, Wash., U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 59, 613–623.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Rieman, B., Peterson, J. T., et al. (2001). Evaluation of potential effects of federal land management alternatives on trends of salmonids and their habitats in the interior Columbia River basin. Forest Ecology and Management, 153(1–3), 43–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Rose, K. A. (2000). Why are quantitative relationships between environmental quality and fish populations so elusive? Ecological Applications, 10(2), 367–385.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Rubidge, E., Corbett, P., et al. (2001). A molecular analysis of hybridization between native westslope cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout in south eastern British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Fish Biology, 59(Supplement A), 42–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Schiess, P. (2000). Sediment and road density reduction. Seattle: University of Washington, College of Forest Resources. 2 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Schiess, P., & Krogstad, F. (2004). Forest harvest and transportation. In T. G. Northcote & G. F. Hartman (Eds.), Fishes and forestry: Worldwide watershed interactions and management (pp. 195–215). Cornwall: Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Schindler, D. W. (2000). Aquatic problems caused by human activities in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Ambio, 29(7), 401–407.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Schlosser, I. J. (1995). Critical landscape attributes that influence fish population dynamics in headwater streams. Hydrobiologica, 303, 71–81.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Schlosser, I. J., & Angermeier, P. L. (1995). Spatial variation in demographic processes of lotic fishes: Conceptual models, empirical evidence and implications for conservation. In J. L. Nielsen (Ed.), Evolution and the aquatic ecosystem: Defining evolutionary significant units of Anadramous Salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 17, 392–401.

  43. Schwarz, C. J. (2005). Stat-403/Stat-650 intermediate sampling and experimental design and analysis. Retrieved December 20, 2005, 2005.

  44. SPSS. (2004). SPSS statistical software release 13.0.1 12 Dec 2004.

  45. Thompson, W., & Lee, D. (2000). Modeling relationships between landscape-level attributes and snorkel counts of chinook salmon and steelhead parr in Idaho. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 57, 1834–1842.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Valdal, E. J. (2006). Cumulative effects of landscape disturbance on westslope cutthroat trout in the Upper Kootenay River watershed: Implications for management and conservation. Calgary: Environmental Science Program, Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary. 97 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Wilcove, D. J. (1993). Getting ahead of the extinction curve. Ecological Applications, 3(2), 218–220.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Personal Communications

  1. Brookes, S. C. (2003). Soils scientist, rocky mountain forest district, BC Ministry of Forests. Personal communication with E. J. Valdal. Invermere.

  2. Chirico, A. (2003). Fisheries information specialist, Nelson Region, BC Ministry of Environment. Personal communication with E. Valdal. Nelson, BC.

  3. Hendry, R. (2005). Forest planner, East Kootenays, BC Ministry of Forests (1993–2002). Personal communication with E. Valdal Invermere, BC.

  4. Holmes, P. (2005). Forest ecosystem specialist, East Kootenays, BC Ministry of Environment. Personal communication with E. Valdal. Invermere, BC.

  5. Tepper, H. (2005). Fisheries biologist, BC Ministry of Environment. Personal communication with E. Valdal. Cranbrook, BC.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michael S. Quinn.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Valdal, E.J., Quinn, M.S. Spatial Analysis of Forestry Related Disturbance on Westslope Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi): Implications for Policy and Management. Appl. Spatial Analysis 4, 95–111 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12061-009-9045-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cutthroat trout
  • Landscape scale
  • Forestry
  • Cumulative effects
  • Fisheries