Implementing sustainable laundering program for textiles in an impeller washer in China and saving energy

  • Hong Liu
  • Xin Li
  • Xuemei DingEmail author
  • Xiongying Wu
Original Article


The cleaning process has a significant environmental impact due to the consumption of resources and chemicals. Laundering procedures were performed in a laboratory washing machine. Orthogonal experiment was carried out to select significant impact factors on washing efficiency and smoothness appearance, and an optimized program was generated according to the experimental results. Compared to the original program, energy consumption of optimized program was reduced by 23%, while the washing efficiency was remained the same. Smoothness appearance of cotton shirt was improved from grade 2.0 to 2.8, which could help to save ironing energy 2.4 kWh and reduce about 2.3 kg CO2-equiv. of the whole lifetime (50 washes). The finding can provide fundamental information to develop a new washing program to achieve good cleaning performance and protect textiles.


Laundering program Energy consumption Soil removal Smoothness appearance 


Funding information

The authors would like to thank the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This research was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFF0215703), the Shanghai Science and Technology Committee (17DZ2202900), Shanghai Summit Discipline in Design (DD18005), and the Donghua University (CUSF-DH-D-2017078 & ISN2017-3).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hong Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Xin Li
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Xuemei Ding
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
    Email author
  • Xiongying Wu
    • 6
  1. 1.Fashion InstituteDonghua UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Clothing Design & Technology, Ministry of EducationDonghua UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Shanghai International Institute of Design & InnovationShanghaiChina
  4. 4.Apparel & Art Design CollegeXi’an Polytechnic UniversityXi’anChina
  5. 5.ShanghaiChina
  6. 6.Shanghai Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine BureauShanghaiChina

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