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Table 2 Consumer-facing innovations relating to mobility which can potentially reduce emissions. • = included in survey of experts; x = included in scaling-up methodology for estimating emission reductions (see text for details)

From: The potential contribution of disruptive low-carbon innovations to 1.5 °C climate mitigation

Potentially disruptive low-carbon innovation (DLCI) Higher-carbon incumbent Survey Scaling-up
Alternative fuel or vehicle technologies Electric vehicles (EVs) ICE vehiclesa  
Autonomous vehicles  
Fuel cell vehicles (H2FCVs)  
Biofuel or flex-fuel vehicles  
Alternative forms of auto-mobility Car clubs (car-sharing) Car ownership and useb x
Shared taxis or ‘taxi-buses’c   
Neighbourhood electric vehiclesd   
Alternatives to auto-mobility e-Bikes Car ownership and useb x
Mobility-as-a-service (MaaS)e x
Reduced demand for mobility Telecommuting Commuting by car  
Interactive virtual reality, telepresencef   
  1. aICE = petrol or diesel-powered internal combustion engines
  2. bIndicative only, displaced transport mode may by public transport or active modes (see text for discussion)
  3. cShared taxis or ‘taxi-buses’ (also real-time ride-sharing) are cars or minivans with multiple passengers on similar routes, booked on short notice via apps so wait times are short
  4. dNeighbourhood electric vehicles (NEVs) are light-weight low-speed battery-driven vehicles allowed on roads (HBR 2015)
  5. eMobility-as-a-service (also inter-modality) refers to app-based scheduling, booking and payment systems for multiple transport modes (ride-sharing, bike-sharing, bus, tram, metro, train) through a single gateway or account (ITF 2016)
  6. fInteractive virtual reality or telepresence can be used for immersive interaction by remote (as currently used in medical diagnosis or surgery) (Roby 2014)