The persistent effectiveness of online feedback and controls for sustainability in the workplace
- 406 Downloads
Office workers tend to waste energy at work due to little motivation for saving energy. This study investigates the effectiveness of online feedback (e.g., self-monitoring, advice, comparison) and control strategies (e.g., online remote control, scheduled control) that can promote voluntary energy conservation in the workplace. Eighty office workers were divided into four groups, and feedback and control interventions were field-tested for 9 months. Baseline data was collected for 14 weeks; different interventions were given to the four groups for 13 weeks and then removed from the groups for 11 weeks. During and after the interventions occurred, the groups that had online controls achieved more energy savings than the groups that had no online controls. While there were no statistical energy savings with computer usage before and after the intervention, the monitor, light, and phone devices showed significant savings as a result. Surveys and interviews were also conducted after the experiment to learn the participants’ behavior and intentions. The findings discussed are based on their responses.
KeywordsOnline feedback Online control Behavior change Energy dashboard Workplace
This study was supported by the Energy Efficient Buildings Hub Consortium (EEBHub.org, a US DOE Innovation Hub, Subtask 6.4) under the US Department of Energy Award Number EE0004261.
- 1E PC Energy Report. (2009). PC Energy Report 2009 United States, United Kingdom, Germany, online at https://www.1e.com/EnergyCampaign/downloads/PC_EnergyReport2009-UK.pdf
- Bedwell, B., Leygue, C., Goulden, M., McAuley, D., Colley, J., Ferguson, E., Banks, N., & Spence, A. (2014). Apportioning energy consumption in the workplace: a review of issues in using metering data to motivate staff to save energy. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 26(10), 1196–1211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ehrhardt-Martinez, K et al. J.A.S.: Advanced metering initiatives and residential feedback programs: a meta-review for household electricity-saving opportunities. Washington, D.C. (2010)Google Scholar
- EIA,U. (2011). Annual energy review. Energy Information Administration, US Department of Energy: Washington, DC, online at www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer.
- Fogg, B. J. (2002). Persuasive technology: using computers to change what we think and do. Ubiquity, 2002(December). doi: 10.1145/763955.763957.
- Fogg, B. J. (2009, April). A behavior model for persuasive design. In Proceedings of the 4th international Conference on Persuasive Technology (p. 40). ACM.Google Scholar
- Foster, D., Lawson, S., Wardman, J., Blythe, M., & Linehan, C. (2012). “Watts in it for me?”: design implications for implementing effective energy interventions in organisations. CHI ’12 (pp. 2357–2366). ACM.Google Scholar
- Ghatikar, G. (2014). Miscellaneous and electronic loads energy efficiency opportunities for commercial buildings: a collaborative study by the United States and India. Retrieved Mar 10, 2016 from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/80b1c401
- Harrigan, M. (1994). Can we transform the market without transforming the customer? Home Energy, 11(1).Google Scholar
- Harrigan, M. S., & Gregory, J. M. (1994). Do savings from energy education persist?. Alliance to save energy.Google Scholar
- Li, I., Dey, A. K., & Forlizzi, J. (2011, September). Understanding my data, myself: supporting self-reflection with ubicomp technologies. In Proceedings of the 13th international conference on Ubiquitous computing (pp. 405–414). ACM.Google Scholar
- Lobato, C., Pless, S., Sheppy, M., & Torcellini, P. (2011, February). Reducing plug and process loads for a large scale, low energy office building: Nrel’s research support facility. In ASHRAE Winter Conference (Vol. 29, pp. 1–2).Google Scholar
- Lucid Design (2010a). Elon University strives to meet carbon commitment through behavior change. Retrieved Feb 14, 2016, from http://www.luciddesigngroup.com/download.php?id=20100701.
- Lucid Design (2010b). Elon University strives to meet carbon commitment through behavior change. Retrieved Apr 14, 2013, from http://www.luciddesigngroup.com/download.php?id=20100701.
- Mercier, C., & Moorefield, L. (2011). Commercial office plug load savings and assessment: final report. Produced by ECOVA and Supported Through the California Energy Commission’s Public Interest Energy Research Program.Google Scholar
- Mosler, H. J., & Gutscher, H. (2004). Promoting energy conserving behaviour by combining instructed self-diffusion with intervention instruments. Umweltpsychologie, 8(1), 50–65.Google Scholar
- NREL (2013). Assessing and reducing plug and process loads in office buildings, Golden, CO, online at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy13osti/54175.pdf
- Sustainability in the workplace report (2011) Retrieved Dec 12, 2014, from http://www.sustainabilityatwork.com.au/downloads/research-report.pdf
- Wilhite, H., & Ling, R. (1999). A. Hoivik and JG. Olsen (1999): Advances in the use of consumption feedback information in energy billing: the experiences of a Norwegian energy utility. In Proceedings, European Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy.Google Scholar
- Yun, R., Scupelli, P., Aziz, A., Loftness, V. (2013a). Sustainability in the workplace: nine intervention techniques for behavior change. In Persuasive technology (pp. 253–265). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
- Yun, R., Lasternas, B., Aziz, A., Loftness, V., Scupelli, P., Rowe, A., Kothari, R., Marion, F., & Zhao J. (2013b). Toward the design of a dashboard to promote environmentally sustainable behavior among office workers. In Persuasive technology (pp. 246–252). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
- Yun, R., Aziz, A., Scupelli, P., Lasternas, B., Zhang, C., & Loftness, V. (2015a, April). Beyond eco-feedback: adding online manual and automated controls to promote workplace sustainability. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1989–1992). ACM.Google Scholar