Skip to main content

Strength development characteristics of concrete produced with blended cement using ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) under various curing conditions

Abstract

To reduce the embodied carbon dioxide of structural concrete, Portland cement (PC) in concrete can be partially replaced with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). In this research effect of partial replacement of cement with GGBS on strength development of concrete and cured under summer and winter curing environments is established. Three levels of cement substitution i.e., 30%, 40% and 50% have been selected. Early-age strength of GGBS concrete is lower than the normal PC concrete which limits its use in the fast-track construction and post-tensioned beams which are subjected to high early loads. The strength gain under winter curing condition was observed as slower. By keeping the water cement ratio low as 0.35, concrete containing GGBS up to 50% can achieve high early-age strength. GGBS concrete gains more strength than the PC concrete after the age of 28 day till 56 day. The mechanical properties of blended concrete for various levels of cement replacement have been observed as higher than control concrete mix having no GGBS.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10

References

  1. Brundtland Commission 1987 Our common future technical report. World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). Oxford: Oxford University press

    Google Scholar 

  2. Struble L and Godfrey J 2004 How sustainable is concrete. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable Development and Concrete Technology Beijing, China, May 20–21, 2004. Centre for Transportation Research and Education, Iowa State University Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 201–211

  3. United Kingdom Quality Ash Association 2010 Embodied CO 2 of UK cement, additions and cementitious material. Technical data sheet 8.3, MPA; UK Quality Ash Association. Available at http://www.ukqaa.org.uk (Accessed October 4, 2012)

  4. Harrison A J W 2003 TecEco cement concretes—abatement, sequestration and waste utilization in the built environment. TecEco Pty. Ltd., Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Available at: http://www.tececo.com/files/conference%20papers/TecEcoTechnologyAbatementSequestrationandWasteUtilsation290105.pdf. (Accessed March 12, 2012)

  5. Alaa M R, Hosam El-Din H S and Amir F S 2014 Effect of silica fume and slag on compressive strength and abrasion resistance of HVFA concrete. Int. J. Concr. Struct. Mater. 8(1): 69–81

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Ujhelyi J E and Ibrahim A J 1991 Hot weather concreting with hydraulic additives. Cem. Concr. Res. 21(2–3): 345–354

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Siddique R and Deepinder K 2012 Properties of concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) at elevated temperatures. J. Adv. Res. 3: 45–51

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Darren T Y, Limda DA XU, Divsholi B, Sabet Kondraivendhan B and Susanto T 2011 Effect of ultra fine slag replacement on durability and mechanical properties of high strength concrete. 36th Conference onOur world in Concrete and Structures’, Singapore 10

  9. Malhotra V M and Mehta P K 1996 Pozzolanic and cementitious materials. Overseas, p 191

  10. Swamy R N 1999 Role of slag in the development of durable and sustainable high strength concretes. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on concrete technology for sustainable development in the 21st Century. Hyderabad, pp. 186–121

  11. Rajamane N P, Annie Peter J, Dattatreya J K, Neelamegam M and Gopalakrishnan S 2003 Improvement in properties of high performance concrete with partial replacement of cement by ground granulated blast furnace slag. IE (I) J. 84(8): 42

    Google Scholar 

  12. Bernal S A, Rodríguez E D, Mejía de Gutiérrez R and Provis J L 2015 Performance at high temperature of alkali-activated slag pastes produced with silica fume and rice husk ash based activators. Mater. de Constr. 65(318): 049, doi:10.3989/mc.2015.03114

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Barnett S J, Soutsos M N, Millard S G and Bungey J H 2006 Strength development of mortars containing ground granulated blast-furnace slag: effect of curing temperature and determination of apparent activation energies. Cem. Concr. Res. 36: 434–440

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Xian Jun Lu and Jun Q 2010 Alkali activation of granulated blast furnace slag. Adv. Mater. Res. 158(1): 1–11

    Google Scholar 

  15. Wang L, Tian P and Yao Y 2004 Application of ground granulated blast furnace slag in high-performance concrete in China. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Sustainability and Concrete Technology, Beijing, China

  16. Nabil B and Simon F 2005 Use of fly ash and slag in concrete. A Best practice guide. Publication No. MTL 2004-16 (TR-R), Govt of Canada p 46

  17. Saeed A and Shah A 2007 Effects of granulated blast furnace slag on the alkali aggregates reactions of various types of concrete. 32nd Conference on Our World in Concrete & Structures. August 28–29, Singapore

  18. David N R 2006 Strength and durability of a 70% ground granulated blast furnace slag concrete mix Organizational Research Report No. RI99-035/RI99-035B, Missouri Department of Transportation USA: p 85

  19. Qureshi M N and Somnath G 2013 Effect of curing conditions on the compressive strength and microstructure of alkali-activated GGBS paste. Int. J. Eng. Sci. Invent. 2(2): 24–31

    Google Scholar 

  20. Islam M M, Islam M S, Mondal B P and Islam M R 2010 Strength behavior of concrete using slag with cement in sea water environment. J. Civil Eng. 38(2): 129–140

    Google Scholar 

  21. SCA 2003 Compressive and flexural strength: slag cement in concrete: Slag Cement Association No 14. Available at: www.slagcement.org (Accessed September 20, 2009)

  22. Oner A and Akyuz S 2007 An experimental study on optimum usage of GGBS for the compressive strength of concrete. Cem. Concr. Compos. 29: 505–514

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Chu V T H 2007 What-is-the-advantage-of-using-ggbs-as-replacement-of-cement-in-concrete. A self learning manual – mastering different fields of civil engineering works

  24. Clear C A 1995 Formwork striking times for ground granulated blastfurnace slag concrete. Proc Inst. Civil Eng. Struct. Build. Lond. 104(4): 441–448

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Higgins D 2006 Sustainable concrete: how can additions contribute. In: Proceedings of the Institute of Concrete Technology Annual Technical Symposium. Institute of Concrete Technology Camberley, UK

  26. Chen J 2005 CO 2 emissions relief through blended cements. Interdisciplinary Team Research in Civil Engineering Materials, North-western University, Centre for Advanced Cement-Based Materials

  27. Jasen G and Stephon L S 2006 The effective use of ground-granulated blast furnace slag to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Concrete 40(10): 92–93

    Google Scholar 

  28. Thomas R 2009 West Thames College–making grey green and keeping it beautiful Concrete, July 2009

  29. Parker J 2012 Building the Shard. Ingenia. Available at: http://www.ingenia.org.uk/ingenia/articles.aspx?index=790, (Accessed 12 September 2012)

  30. Hanson 2010 REGEN The strength behind sustainable concrete. London: Hanson Cement, Heidelberg cement group

    Google Scholar 

  31. British Standard Institute 2011 BS EN 197-1:2011. Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements. British Standard Institute, London

  32. British Standard Institute 2009 BS EN 12620-1:2009. Aggregates for concrete. British Standard Institute, London

  33. British Standards Institution 2009 BS EN 12390-3: 2009. Testing hardened concrete. Part 3: Compressive strength of test specimens. British Standards Institute, London

  34. Khatib J M and Hibbert J J 2005 Selected engineering properties of concrete incorporating slag and metakaolin. Constr. Build. Mater. J. 19: 460–472

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Solanki J V and Pitroda J 2013 Flexural strength of beams by partial replacement of cement with fly ash and hypo sludge in concrete. Int. J. Eng. Sci. Innov. Technol. 2 (1): 173–179

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shahab Samad.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Samad, S., Shah, A. & Limbachiya, M.C. Strength development characteristics of concrete produced with blended cement using ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) under various curing conditions. Sādhanā 42, 1203–1213 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12046-017-0667-z

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12046-017-0667-z

Keywords

  • Embodied
  • slag
  • partial replacement
  • compressive strength
  • curing
  • modulus of elasticity
  • flexural strength