Skip to main content
Log in

From ELIZA to ChatGPT

History of Human-Computer Conversation

  • General Article
  • Published:
Resonance Aims and scope Submit manuscript


In 1950, Turing suggested a test to determine whether a computer can exhibit intelligent behaviour indistinguishable from that of a human. An aspect of the test was an imaginary conversation between a human and a computer. Since then, computer scientists have designed software to let humans interact with a computer in natural language. The first such program was ELIZA, designed in 1965. After ELIZA, numerous programs (christened Chatbots) have been written to enable humans to converse with computers in natural language. In this article, I describe several of them, including those that orally answer oral questions. I describe the latest program called ChatGPT, developed in late 2022, which has astounded everyone by its ability to answer questions posed in a natural language in any field and converse fluently with humans.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

Suggested Reading

  1. Imperial War Museum, UK, How Alan Turing Cracked the Enigma Code.∼:text=With%20the%20help%20of%20captured,of%20all%20German%20naval%20signals.

  2. A. M. Turing, Computing machinery and intelligence, Mind, 59, pp.433–60, October 1950.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. J. Weizenbaum, ELIZA—A computer program for the study of natural language communication between man and machine, Com. ACM, Vol.9, No.1, pp.36–45, Jan 1966.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. J. Weizenbaum, Computer Power and Human Reasoning, W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, 1976.

    Google Scholar 

  5. E. Adamopoulou, and L. Moussiades, Chatbots: History, technology, and applications, Machine Learning and Applications, Vol.2, December 2020, Elsevier.

  6. V. Cerf, PARRY encounters ELIZA, Based on a demonstration at ICCC 1972.

  7. ChatGPT Competitors Emerging in 2023,

  8. Caroline M. Nyce, Nine Chatbots you can play with right now, The Atlantic, March 28, 2023.

  9. D.Gewirtz, How does ChatGPT Work? ZDNET, March 10,2023.

  10. J Grudin, ChatGPT and Chat History: Challenges for the New Wave, IEEE Computer, Vol.56, No.5, pp.94–100, May 2023.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


I thank Prof. P.C.P. Bhatt, Dr. N.Dayasindhu, Prof. R. Govindarajan, and Prof. S.Ramani for reading this article and for their comments that improved it.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to V. Rajaraman.

Additional information

V. Rajaraman is at the Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru. Several generations of scientists and engineers in India have learnt computer science using his lucidly written textbooks on programming and computer fundamentals. His current research interests are parallel computing and history of computing.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rajaraman, V. From ELIZA to ChatGPT. Reson 28, 889–905 (2023).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: