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Analysis of Allelic Diversity and Genetic Relationships Among Cultivated Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) in Java, Indonesia Using Microsatellite Markers and Morphological Characters


The genetic variation and relationships of the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) were observed across mangosteen populations in Java, Indonesia using newly identified microsatellite loci and morphological characters. In this study, we developed an improved protocol to isolate microsatellite loci, named Selective Repeats from AFLP Sequence, by using a hybridized membrane. Twenty microsatellite loci were evaluated using 78 individuals from five mangosteen populations, and we successfully amplified four closely related Garcinia species, including G. malaccensis, G. hombroniana, G. celebica, and G. porrecta. Eight loci were monomorphic and the others were polymorphic. Sixty-nine alleles were found, with 3.491 per locus on an average. Genetic diversity (Hʹ) was calculated with an average across loci within population (HʹS) as 0.39, an average loci across many populations (HʹT) as 0.444, and genetic differentiation (FʹST) as 0.147. Furthermore, based on morphological characters, mangosteen individuals from four populations including Leuwiliang, Wanayasa, Puspahiang, and Kaligesing also had morphologically distinct fruit weight, rind weight, and rind thickness among populations. The study also elucidated the dispersal pattern of mangosteen in Java; the source of the genotype mangosteen in Java population was the Wanayasa population. In addition, we found evidence of tetraploidy in mangosteen. These results have potential applications in future breeding, conservation studies, and genetic assessment of mangosteen and their closely related species.

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We wish to thank Mr. Nanang and Mr. Supardi in Leuwiliang district, Mr. Gito in Kaligesing district, Mr. Supena in Puspahiang district, and Mr. Ade Sugema in Wanayasa district for helping in the collection of mangosteen samples from the field. We also thank Dr. Rismita Sari (Bogor Botanic Garden, Indonesia), Dr. Reza Tirtawinata (Mekarsari Fruits Garden, Indonesia), and NIAS Genebank (Japan) for providing Garcinia species, and the Center for Tropical Horticulture Studies of Bogor Agricultural University (Indonesia) for permission to conduct the research. We also thank D. Obbard for providing F-DASH software. DDM was supported by a MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology) Japanese Government scholarship during the performance of the research.

Author Contributions

All author contributed to the design of the research

D.D.M., R.P., S, E.S designed the morphological observation

D.D.M., H.H., H.A., E.I. designed the molecular analysis

D.D.M., wrote the manuscript with contributions and editing from E.I.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript

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Correspondence to Eiichi Inoue.

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Communicated by: Paulo Arruda

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Matra, D.D., Poerwanto, R., Santosa, E. et al. Analysis of Allelic Diversity and Genetic Relationships Among Cultivated Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) in Java, Indonesia Using Microsatellite Markers and Morphological Characters. Tropical Plant Biol. 9, 29–41 (2016).

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  • Apomictic
  • Genetic marker
  • Polymorphism
  • Polyploid
  • SSR