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Depositional and diagenetic studies of clastic reservoirs zone in the Cretaceous Lower Goru Formation, Sindh Monocline, South Pakistan

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Abstract

The Albian–Aptian Goru Formation represents a fluvio-deltaic reservoir in both the Central and Southern Indus Basin, Pakistan. Using high-resolution core data, this study provides comprehensive insights into the depositional environment and its role in influencing reservoir heterogeneities in the studied formation. The sedimentological investigations demonstrate five lithofacies, namely, (i) massive sandstone (Sm), (ii) horizontal to low-angle planar laminated sandstone (Sl), (iii) planar cross-laminated sandstone (Sc), (iv) heterolithic beds (Hw and Hr), and (v) massive mudstone (Mm). Facies associations reflect shallow marine depositional settings varying from deltaic in the NE to strand plain in the SW. The framework grains of the established lithofacies exhibit quartzo-feldspathic petrofabrics, which have been sourced from stable craton-continental block settings. The petrophysical data in the core depth zone show high shale content in Well-A and lower parts of Well-B. In Well-A, the crossover between the density and neutron logs is not observed, which suggests unsaturated sands, while Well-B exhibits a permeable zone as indicated by neutron-density crossover, low gamma ray values, and relatively high porosity. The petrographic analysis and scanning electron microscopy indicate high effective porosities contributed by both primary (intergranular and intercrystalline) and secondary porosity (owing to fracturing and dissolution). The upper part of Well-B shows high porosity values up to 28% due to highly fractured quartz. Porosity values are low in the lower parts of the Well-A and Well-B due to intensive calcite cementation, chlorite recrystallization, proto matrix as well as pseudo matrix. This suggests that both Well-A and Well-B have a common source but the reservoir properties can be attributed to the depositional and post-depositional variations in the petrofabric of the studied lithological units. The Cretaceous Goru Formation in Southern Indus Basin, the Pariwar formations in Jaisalmar Basin, and Bhuj Formation in Kutch Basin share same geological history and sedimentary processes. Thus, these studies can be utilized in the exploration of Cretaceous reservoirs in these basins.

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This work was funded by Oil and Gas Development corporation, Limited.

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Jawad Ahmad Jan has carried out core studies, petrography, and SEM studies, prepared the research thesis and initial draft of MS. Mumtaz Muhammad Shah did thesis supervision, funds arrangement, and draft checking. Hamad ur Rahim helped in petrographic studies, checked, revised and finalized MS. Shahid Iqbal helped the first author in core and petrographic studies. Samina Jahandad facilitated the core studies at HDIP. Muhammad Jamil did the artwork and revised the first draft. Rayan Khalil drafted the model and proofread the whole manuscript. Yawar Amin carried out the petrophysical studies of the MS.

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Correspondence to Hamad ur Rahim.

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Communicated by Joydip Mukhopadhyay

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Jan, J.A., Shah, M.M., Rahim, H.u. et al. Depositional and diagenetic studies of clastic reservoirs zone in the Cretaceous Lower Goru Formation, Sindh Monocline, South Pakistan. J Earth Syst Sci 133, 115 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12040-024-02333-z

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