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Analysis of temperature and rainfall trends in Beni City, Democratic Republic of Congo

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Understanding local-scale climate change is vital to developing adaptive strategies in the face of the century-old river of global warming posing a threat to humanity. This study focuses on assessing temperature and rainfall trends in Beni City, using monthly and yearly (1990–2020) weather station data. Climate variability was analysed using the standardised variable index, and rainfall concentration patterns were highlighted using the precipitation concentration index (PCI). The climate trends were analysed by using the Mann–Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator. The findings indicated that the Tmin is 18.82±0.62°C, and Tmax is 28.22±0.75°C, resulting in a mean temperature of 23.52±0.57°C. The annual and seasonal temperature trend analysis indicated that a significant warming trend was observed in both Tmin and Tmax. Beni City's precipitation trends also showed a mean annual rainfall of 1988.38±416.59 mm, with significant year-to-year variations. Annual rainfall analysis exhibited a slight upward trend; meanwhile, the seasonal trend analysis revealed an increase in rainfall during Mar–Apr–May (MAM) and Aug–Sep–Oct–Nov (ASON) seasons with roughly no discernible trend during Dec–Jan–Feb (DJF), and Jun–Jul (JJ) seasons. Overall, annual and seasonal analyses of specific temperature and rainfall patterns have shown pronounced warming and increased rainfall in the study area.

Research highlights

  • The study reveals significant trends in temperature and rainfall in Beni city, Democratic Republic of Congo, over a 31-year period (1990–2020).

  • Both minimum and maximum temperatures show significant warming trends, with the most recent decade witnessing substantial increases in maximum temperatures.

  • Rainfall patterns exhibit variations, with a slight upward trend in annual rainfall, although the 1990s experienced a notable decrease in precipitation.

  • Monthly analyses highlight specific temperature and rainfall patterns with some months experiencing pronounced warming and increased rainfall.

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The authors would like to thank the ENRA Company via its director for making the necessary data available for the present study. The authors also thank the anonymous reviewers for their critical and constructive comments, which helped to bring the manuscript to its present form.

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Authors and Affiliations



PVR: Conception and design of the study, drafting the manuscript, and analysis and interpretation of data. SAB: Data processing, planning and editing of the data. CA and AZ: Data analysis and editing of the manuscript. AG: Conceptualisation, supervision, interpretation of data, and editing of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Awoke Guadie.

Additional information

Communicated by Parthasarathi Mukhopadhyay

Supplementary material pertaining to this article is available on the Journal of Earth System Science website (

Supplementary Information

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Supplementary file1 (DOCX 38 KB)

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Posite, V.R., Ahana, B.S., Abdelbaki, C. et al. Analysis of temperature and rainfall trends in Beni City, Democratic Republic of Congo. J Earth Syst Sci 133, 102 (2024).

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