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Granite series assessment, nature and crystallization condition of Paleoproterozoic granite gneisses from Askot and Chiplakot klippe, Kumaun Lesser Himalaya, India

Abstract

Felsic magmatic rocks of Askot and Chiplakot regions in the inner segment of the Kumaun Lesser Himalaya are represented by the Paleoproterozoic two-mica (biotite–muscovite) granite gneisses (ca. 1850 Ma), which are referred herein as Askot (AGGn) and Chiplakot (CGGn) granite gneisses, respectively. They are invariably metamorphosed, giving rise to augen bearing or augen free gneissose texture exhibited mainly by micaceous minerals. They bear a common bt-ms-pl-qz-Kf-zrn-ap-ttn±mag assemblage. The magnetic susceptibility (MS) mapping, phase petrology of biotite and muscovite from AGGn and CGGn are employed to assess the granite series, nature and crystallization condition of their respective granitic magmas. Although the observed average MS values of the AGGn (0.019–0.028×10–3 SI) and CGGn (0.051–0.098×10–3 SI) are slightly distinct, both typically belong to ilmenite series (reduced) granites. The AGGn and CGGn biotites are primary, siderophyllite, belonging to ferri-siderophyllite transition and ferri biotites, respectively, which crystallized with muscovite unaccompanied with other mafic minerals. The AGGn and CGGn muscovites are primary in nature, belonging to celadonite and paragonite solid solution series, which evolved in peraluminous (S-type) granite melt under reduced conditions. The AGGn and CGGn biotite and muscovite thus represent primary liquidus phases, not the secondary or restite or metamorphic products except a few tiny muscovites. The observed FeOt/MgO ratio of AGGn (5.47–10.72; av. 7.78) and CGGn (2.44–3.69; av. 2.90) biotites dictate anorogenic alkaline (A-type) and syn-collisional peraluminous (S-type) host granite magmas, respectively. However, siderophyllite (aluminous) nature and vital 3Fe ⇌ 2Al substitution of AGGn and CGGn biotites strongly propound their evolution in peraluminous (S-type) granite magmas. The CGGn biotites are enriched in phlogopite (Mgapfu = 1.75) as compared to AGGn (Mgapfu = 0.88) biotites, which probably reflect derivation of CGGn melt from crustal source with slightly more mafic as compared to the crustal source of AGGn melt. The estimated physico-chemical conditions of AGGn (P = 3.6–4.21 kbar, T = 690–780°C, f O2 = 10–16.29 to 10–15.72 bars, Fe3+/Fe2+ = 0.12–0.16, H2O ≈ 4 wt.%) and CGGn (P = 3.03–6.63 kbar, T = 750–840°C, f O2 = 10–16.54 to 10–14.22 bars, F3+/Fe2+ = 0.04–0.11, H2O ≈ 3 wt.%) point to strongly reduced and moderately reduced nature of respective host magma, that prevailed at mid-crustal depths. The differential reducing conditions of host magma evolution are equivocally demonstrated by the stability of AGGn and CGGn biotites from the Fayalite–Magnetite–Quartz (FMQ) to the above Nickel-Nickel Oxide (NNO) buffers and observed MS values.

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source of respective host magmas (after Zhou 1986). Note the relatively mafic-enriched crustal source for the CGGn melt.

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taken from Wones and Eugster (1965). The green and red arrows show reducing conditions of biotite crystallization in the AGGn and CGGn melts, respectively.

Figure 11

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Acknowledgements

The present work is supported under a Ministry of Earth Science (MoES), Govt. of India research grant (MoES/P.O.(Geo)/101(v)/2017) awarded to SK. KSP acknowledges the Senior Research Fellowship awarded in the same MoES project. S Gupta helped us during the fieldwork. NV Chalapathi Rao is thanked for the permission to use the electron probe micro analytical facility at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. D Pandit and A Solanki rendered the analytical help. The facilities developed at Geology Department of Kumaun University, under DST-FIST Level I & II and UGC-CAS Phase I & II, are gratefully acknowledged. Ashok Kumar Singhvi, Somnath Dasgupta, Vandana Chaudhary, and Vamdeo Pathak are thanked for continuous encouragement during the course of present research work. The generous scientific comments from two anonymous reviewers and NV Chalapathi Rao, Editor-in-Chief, significantly improved the earlier version.

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KSP: Conceptualization, investigation, validation, visualization, writing – review and editing. SK: Conceptualization, investigation, validation, visualization, writing – review and editing, project administration, supervision.

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Correspondence to Santosh Kumar.

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Panwar, K.S., Kumar, S. Granite series assessment, nature and crystallization condition of Paleoproterozoic granite gneisses from Askot and Chiplakot klippe, Kumaun Lesser Himalaya, India. J Earth Syst Sci 131, 173 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12040-022-01910-4

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Keywords

  • Granite series
  • biotite
  • muscovite
  • granite gneisses
  • Askot–Chiplakot
  • Kumaun Lesser Himalaya
  • India