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Meso-scale foreshore evolution in low-energy, storm-dominated tropical west coast of India: Implications for shoreline management

Abstract

Along the tropical coast, there is cyclic variation in wind, wave currents, water and sediment influx, and the coasts experience a monsoonal storm surge that reaches nearly 2–3 times higher than the rest of the year, and foreshores undergo a complex evolution during an annual cycle. Hence, knowledge of foreshore evolution is critical in shoreline management. In this paper, study results on meso-scale foreshore evolution in a low-energy headland bay beach, situated in the Central West Coast of India near Manki, are discussed based on their seasonal and decadal changes in sandy shoreline configuration, wave refraction, sediment movement and depositional process. Decadal changes in the shoreline configuration indicated headland-side erosion and bay growth whereas the southern end grown seawards between the period 1979 and 2001–2002, while the beaches adjacent to the creek present in the area showed accretion and farther south of the creek showed minor erosion, and the trend continued through 2015. Wave refraction patterns for the waves approaching from northwest (NW), west and southwest (SW) for the wave periods 6, 8, 10 and 12 s indicated (a) wave convergence at the central part of the Manki beach; for the waves approaching from NW for wave periods 6 s; (b) wave divergence for the waves approaching from west with wave periods 6, 8, 10 and 12 s and (c) wave convergence at the bay side for the SW as well as NW approach of waves for wave period 10 s. Seasonal beach modification, in general, indicated post-monsoonal to pre-monsoonal (September to April) accretion and May to September erosion. Foreshore is gentle and dissipative (<6°). Sediments in all the seasons are bimodal (at 2ϕ and 2.752ϕ) in nature, and show dominantly saltation to suspension mode of transport. A parabolic shoreline prediction model indicated negative sediment budget in the central and northern parts of the beach (near the headland) and positive sediment budget at the southern end of the beach. Integration of the foreshore profile, sediment movement pattern, results of parabolic shoreline prediction model and decadal changes in shoreline configuration indicated that sediment budget is a critical issue in headland-bounded beaches, and utmost care is needed in the management of such shore line.

Research highlights

  • This paper uses seasonal variations in the foreshore morphology, beach volume, sediment characteristics and wave refraction pattern to understand the sediment movement within the beach.

  • Based on Hsu et al.’s (2004) model shoreline position is predicted.

  • For a finite sediment input beach, shoreline management strategy is suggested.

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Acknowledgements

Authors sincerely thank the ISRO RESPOND and Space Application Centre, Ahmedabad for award of the Project (9/1(9)/2001 II) during the tenure of which the present work was carried out and authorities of the SDMCET for the facility extended to carry out the work. We thank sincerely the anonymous reviewers of the Journal of Earth System Science and the editorial board for the useful suggestions and critical comments on the earlier version of the manuscript that greatly helped in improving the quality of the manuscript.

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Contributions

The idea presented in the paper is jointly conceptualized by Dr V S Hegde and Dr Shailesh Nayak; approach evolved jointly by V S Hegde, Dr S R Nayak and Dr A S Rajawat; grant generated by Dr V S Hedge; Wave refraction analysis is carried out by Girish K Huchchannavar, under the supervision and support of Dr S Jayakumar; Shoreline change analysis and prediction model is jointly done by Dr Krishnaprasad and Dr G Shalini; Field work, data generation and curation of laboratory and field data is done jointly by Dr Kanchanagouri and Dr Lavanya Hegde, Girish, and Shalini, under the supervision of Dr V S Hedge; written by Dr V S Hedge and edited by Dr Shailesh Nayak.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Venkatraman S Hegde.

Additional information

Communicated by N V Chalapathi Rao

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Hegde, V.S., Nayak, S.R., Huchchannavar, G.K. et al. Meso-scale foreshore evolution in low-energy, storm-dominated tropical west coast of India: Implications for shoreline management. J Earth Syst Sci 131, 26 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12040-021-01773-1

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12040-021-01773-1

Keywords

  • Foreshore – morphodynamics
  • sediment movement
  • bay-side beach
  • tropical coast
  • low-energy microtidal condition