The present study investigates the reasons for the heavy siltation in Chilka Lake which is analysed by satellite imagery, ground survey and geophysical studies. Modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI) and linear spectral unmixing method (LSU) reveal the presence of a wetland, suspended sediments and aquatic weeds along the northeastern boundary of the lake and beyond. Gravity, magnetic data and 3D inversion modelling reveal various sets of faults that were periodically reactivated to form uplifted and subsided blocks around the lake. Geomorphic evidence like low valley width/height ratio (Vf) with <1.5 (valley undercutting due to uplift), low mountain front sinuosity index (Smf), basin asymmetry, transverse topographic symmetry (T), compressed meanders, and flow diversion are all indicative of neotectonic activity and the resulting reactivation of faults. Neotectonic activity is also evidenced from the occurrence of seismic tremors in and around the Chilka region which lies in Zone III of the seismic zonation map of India. This neotectonic activity can be related to the compressional stresses persisting over most parts of the Indian Shield due to the Himalayan Orogeny. The resulting uplift and subsidence led to erosion of the uplifted block and sedimentations in the subsided block by the rivers Daya and Bhargabi. This is the probable cause of heavy siltation in Chilka Lake, where the eroded sediments of the uplifted block are deposited by these two rivers.
This work reveals an interconnection between geomorphic features and subsurface structures that together control neotectonic activity in the Chilka region.
Compressive stresses related to the Himalayan Orogeny reactivate ancient NW–SE and NE–SW trending faults, resulting in uplift and subsidence of basement blocks.
Recent sedimentation is controlled by these basement uplifts and depressions. Uplifts trigger river erosion, transferring large volumes of sediment into the Chilka Lake depression. Organic nutrients transported with the sediments are responsible for the enhanced growth of aquatic weeds in the northeastern part of Chilka Lake.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Anand S P and Rajaram M 2004 Crustal structure of Narmada–Son lineament: An aeromagnetic perspective; Earth, Planets Space 56(5) 9–12.
Baksi A K 1995 Petrogenesis and timing of volcanism in the Rajmahal flood basalt province, northeastern India; Chem. Geol. 121 73–90.
Baishya N C and Singh S N 1986 DSS profiling in Mahanadi onshore areas: A case study; In: Deep Seismic Soundings and Crustal Tectonics (eds) Kaila K L and Tewari H C, Assoc. Explor. Geophys., Hyderabad, India, pp. 1–9.
Banerjee P, Burgmann R, Nagarajan B and Apel E 2008 Intraplate deformation of the Indian subcontinent; Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(18) 1–5.
Barik S S, Prusty P, Singh R K, Tripathy S, Farooq S H and Sharma K 2020 Seasonal and spatial variations in elemental distributions in surface sediments of Chilika Lake in response to change in salinity and grain size distribution; Environ. Earth Sci. 79(269) 1–18.
Behera L, Sain K and Reddy P R 2004 Evidence of underplating from seismic and gravity studies in the Mahanadi delta of eastern India and its tectonic significance; J. Geophys. Res. 109 1–25.
Bharali B, Rath S and Sarma R 1991 A brief review of Mahanadi delta and the deltaic sediments in Mahanadi basin: Quaternary deltas of India; Mem. Geol. Soc. India 22 31–49.
Bhattacharjee D, Jain V, Chattopadhyay A, Biswas R H and Singhvi A K 2016 Geomorphic evidences and chronology of multiple neotectonic events in a cratonic area: Results from the Gavilgarh Fault Zone, central India; Tectonophys. 677–678 199–217.
BIS 2002 IS1893–2002 (Part 1): Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Part 1 – General Provisions and Buildings, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
Bose S, Das A, Samantaray S, Banerjee S and Gupta S 2020 Late tectonic reorientation of lineaments and fabrics in the northern Eastern Ghats Province, India: Evaluating the role of the Mahanadi Shear Zone; J. Asian Earth Sci. 201(104071) 1–18, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2019.104071.
Bose S and Gupta S 2018 Strain partitioning along the Mahanadi Shear Zone: Implications for paleo-tectonics of the Eastern Ghats Province India; J. Asian Earth Sci. 157 269–282, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2017.11.021.
Bose S and Gupta S 2020 Evolution of stretching lineations in granulite-hosted ductile shear zones, Eastern Ghats Province, India: Role of temperature, strain rate and pre-existing stretching lineations; J. Struct. Geol. 138 104127, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2020.104127.
Bull W B and McFadden L D 1977 Tectonic geomorphology north and south of the Garlock fault, California; In: Geomorphology of Arid Regions (ed.) Doehring D O, Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Geomorphology Symposium, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton N, pp. 115–138.
Chen Y C, Sung Q and Cheng K Y 2003 Along-strike variations of morphotectonic features in the Western Foothills of Taiwan: Tectonic implications based on stream-gradient and hypsometric analysis; Geomorphology 56 109–137.
Dhar S, Rai A K and Nayak P 2017 Estimation of seismic hazard in Odisha by remote sensing and GIS techniques; Nat. Hazards 86 695–709.
Fuloria R C 1993 Geology and hydrocarbon prospects of Mahanadi basin, India; In: Proceedings of the Second Seminar on Petroliferous Basins in India (ed.) Biswas S K et al., Indian Petrol., Dehradun, India 1 355–369.
Gupta S, Mohanty W K, Mandal A and Misra S 2014 Ancient terrain boundaries as probable seismic hazards: A case study from the northern boundary of the Eastern Ghats Belt India; Geosci. Front. 5 17–24.
GSI-NGRI 2006 Gravity anomaly map of India on 1:2 million scale, Geological Survey of India, Hyderabad and National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, India, Maps, pp. 1–3.
Jade S 2004 Estimates of plate velocity and crustal deformation in the Indian subcontinent using GPS geodesy; Curr. Sci. 86(10) 1443–1448.
Jain V and Sinha R 2005 Response of active tectonics on the alluvial Baghmati River, Himalayan foreland basin, eastern India; Geomorphology 70 339–356.
Jana S, Mohanty W K, Gupta S, Rath C S, Behera R R and Patnaik P 2016 Multi-pronged search for paleo-channels near Konark temple, Odisha: Implications for the mythical river Chandrabhaga; Curr. Sci. 111 1387–1393.
Jana S, Mohanty W K, Gupta S, Rath C S and Patnaik P 2018 Palaeo-channel bisecting Puri Town, Odisha: Vestige of the lost river ‘Saradha’?; Curr. Sci. 115(2) 300–309.
Kaila K L, Tewari H C and Mall D M 1987 Crustal structure and delineation of Gondwana sediments in the Mahanadi delta area, India, from deep seismic soundings; J. Geol. Soc. India 29 293–308.
Keller E A and Pinter N 2002 Active Tectonics: Earthquakes, Uplift and Landscape (2nd edn), Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 361p.
Kothyari G C and Rastogi B K 2013 Tectonic control on drainage network evolution in the upper Narmada Valley: Implication to Neotectonics; Geography J. 2013 1–9.
Krishna K S, Bull J M and Scrutton R A 2001 Evidence for multiphase folding of the central Indian Ocean lithosphere; Geology 29(8) 715–718.
Krishna K S, Bull J M and Scrutton R A 2009 Early (pre-8 Ma) fault activity and temporal strain accumulation in the central Indian Ocean; Geol. Soc. America 37(3) 227–230.
Kumar A, Equeenuddin Sk Md, Mishra D R and Acharya B C 2016 Remote monitoring of sediment dynamics in a coastal lagoon: Long term spatio-temporal variability of suspended sediment in Chilika; Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 170 155–172.
Last B J and Kubik K 1983 Compact gravity inversion; Geophysics 48 713–721.
Maitra A, Bose S, Ghosh A and Gupta S 2021 Neoproterozoic extension and decompression in the northern Eastern Ghats Province, India: Mid-crustal signature of Rodinia break-up?; Precamb. Res. 358 106149, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2021.106149.
Mahalik N K 2006 Geology and Mineral Resources of Orissa (3rd edn), Bhubaneswar 751 001; Society of Geoscientists and Allied Technologies, Odisha, pp. 27–44.
Malik J N and Mohanty C 2007 Active tectonic influence on the evolution of drainage and landscape: Geomorphic signatures from frontal and hinterland areas along the Northwestern Himalaya, India; J. Asian Earth Sci. 29 604–618.
Mandal A 2013 Integrated geophysical studies for delineation of subsurface structures and mineral deposits in the eastern Indian shield, PhD diss., Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur.
Mandal A, Gupta S, Mohanty W K and Misra S 2015 Sub-surface structure of a craton–mobile belt interface: Evidence from geological and gravity studies across the Rengali Province–Eastern Ghats Belt boundary, eastern India; Tectonophys. 662 140–152.
Mohanty W K, Mandal A, Sharma S P, Gupta S and Misra S 2011 Integrated geological and geophysical studies for delineation of chromite deposits: A case study from Tangarparha, Orissa, India; Geophysics. 76(5) B173-185.
Murthy K S R, Subrahmanyam V, Subrahmanyam A S, Murty G P S and Sarma K V L N S 2010 Land-ocean tectonics (LOTs) and the associated seismic hazard over the Eastern continental margin of India (ECMI); Nat. Hazards 55 167–175.
Nayak G K, Rao C R and Rambabu H V 2006 Aeromagnetic evidence for the arcuate shape of Mahanadi Delta, India; Earth Planets Space 58 1093–1098.
Panda U C, Rath P, Sahu K C, Majumdar S and Sundaray S K 2006 Study of geochemical association of some trace metals in the sediments of Chilika Lake: A multivariate statistical approach; Environ. Monitor. Assessment 123 125–150.
Panigrahi S, Acharya B C, Panigrahy R C, Nayak B K, Banerjee K and Sarkar S K 2007 Anthropogenic impact on water quality of Chilika lagoon RAMSAR site: A statistical approach; Wetlands Ecol. Manage. 15 113–126.
Ramasamy S M 2006 Remote sensing and active tectonics of South India; Int. J. Rem. Sens. 27(20) 4397–4431.
Rao S G, Radhakrishna M and Murthy K S R 2015 A seismotectonic study of the 21 May 2014 Bay of Bengal intraplate earthquake: Evidence of onshore–offshore tectonic linkage and fracture zone reactivation in the northern Bay of Bengal; Nat. Hazards 78 895–913.
Rhea S 1993 Geomorphic observations of rivers in the Oregon Coast Range from a regional reconnaissance perspective; Geomorphology 6(2) 135–150.
Rockwell T K, Keller E A and Johnson D L 1984 Tectonic geomorphology of alluvial fans and mountain fronts near Ventura, California; In: Tectonic Geomorphology (eds) Morisawa M and Hack T J, Publications in Geomorphology, State University of New York, Binghamton, pp. 183–207.
Roy S and Sahu A S 2015 Quaternary tectonic control on channel morphology over sedimentary low land: A case study in the Ajay-Damodar interfluve of Eastern India; Geosci. Front. 6 927–946.
Silva P G, Goy J L, Zazo C and Bardajı T 2003 Fault-generated mountain fronts in southeast Spain: Geomorphologic assessment of tectonic and seismic activity; Geomorphology 50 203–225.
Shimabukuro Y E and Smith J A 1991 The least-squares mixing models to generate fraction images derived from remote sensing multispectral data; IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 29 16–20.
Sohoni P S, Malik J N, Merh S S and Karanth R V 1999 Active tectonics astride Katrol Hill Zone, Kachchh, Western India; J. Geol. Soc. India 53 579–586.
Telford W M, Geldart L P and Sheriff R E 1990 Applied Geophysics (2nd edn), Cambridge University Press, 792p.
Vaidyanadhan R and Ghosh R N 1993 Quaternary of the east coast of India; Curr. Sci. 64 804–816.
Venkatarathnam K 1970 Formation of the barrier spit and other sand ridges near Chilka Lake on the east coast of India; Marine Geol. 9 101–116.
Wells S G, Bullard T F, Menges C M, Drake P G, Karas P A, Kelson K I, Ritter J B and Wesling J R 1988 Regional variations in tectonic geomorphology along a segmented convergent plate boundary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica; Geomorphology 1 239–265.
Zhou W, Wang S, Zhou Y and Troy A 2006 Mapping the concentrations of total suspended matter in Lake Taihu, China, using Landsat-5 TM data; Int. J. Rem. Sens. 27(6) 1177–1191.
The authors would like to thank US Geological Survey for providing free satellite data for research purposes. This work is a part of a larger project being undertaken under the SANDHI initiative at IIT Kharagpur, funded by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (now Ministry of Education, Government of India). The authors would like to thank the Ministry of Education for the funding.
Communicated by Navin Juyal
About this article
Cite this article
Jana, S., Mohanty, W.K., Gupta, S. et al. An integrated geomorphological and geophysical study of neotectonic activity: Analysis of heavy siltation in the Chilka Lake of Odisha, India. J Earth Syst Sci 130, 220 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12040-021-01702-2