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Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis assay on copepod Tisbe furcata as a new rapid bioassay to assess marine sediment quality

Abstract

Toxicity bioassays measure the direct impacts of contaminants on aquatic environment. Sediment toxicity bioassay using resident species with analysis of priority chemicals accomplish the reliable risk assessment. Copepods are sensitive to environmental contaminants and widely applied for toxicity bioassays. Therefore, present study demonstrates sediment toxicity bioassay on meio-benthic harpacticoid copepod Tisbe furcata. Sediment quality parameters, metals, and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) are measured in the sediment. Pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk index (PERI) are determined from metal concentration. Biological responses of copepod and sediment microbe are measured by hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA). Sediment quality is assessed by the rate of FDA hydrolysis in comparison with sediment quality parameters. Absorbance of fluorescein in sediment extracts measured between 0.0437 and 0.0846 by copepods. Sediment toxicity response of copepods exhibited that the estuarine sediments are highly toxic with considerable ecological risk attributing higher PLI and PERI respectively. Interestingly, the toxicity bioassay exhibits moderate toxicity in the sediment samples of bar mouth and off-shore of the estuary. However, PLI and PERI reveal that these sediments are unpolluted with low ecological risk and even the impact from unknown emerging contaminants can be captured by sediment toxicity using copepod. High hydrolytic activities by sediment microbes at main stream of estuary and coastal sediments are attributed to sewage discharges. These assays are more environmentally relevant, reliable and cost-effective, and numerous tests can be conducted with basic laboratory equipments to regulate pollution.

Graphic abstract

Highlights

  • Sediment toxicity bioassay on benthic copepod captured impact of pollutants.

  • FDA hydrolysis by microbe can be used to assess the level of fecal contamination.

  • Sediment toxicity bioassay accomplishes the ecological risk assessment.

  • Bioassay described is rapid, inexpensive and aids reliable risk assessment.

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Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India for implementing the ‘Marine Ecotoxicology and Ecological Risk Assessment’ (MEERA) Programme [MoES/EFC/28/2018-PC-II dated 12/11/2018] at National Centre for Coastal Research (NCCR), Chennai. Authors also thank the Director, National Centre for Coastal Research for constant encouragement and support to carry out the work.

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Contributions

P Karthikeyan: Experiments, data analysis, and original draft preparation; P Raja: Participated in sampling and experiments; M Kunguma Kannika: Experiments and analysis of samples; S R Marigoudar: Visualization, reviewing and editing; K Venkatarama Sharma: Leading the project activities.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to S R Marigoudar.

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This article is part of the Topical Collection: Advances in Coastal Research.

Communicated by Maripi Dileep

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Karthikeyan, P., Raja, P., Kannika, M.K. et al. Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis assay on copepod Tisbe furcata as a new rapid bioassay to assess marine sediment quality. J Earth Syst Sci 130, 141 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12040-021-01630-1

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Keywords

  • Pollution
  • sediment toxicity
  • fluorescein diacetate
  • risk assessment
  • environmental quality assessment