Rapid urban expansion and associated land-use land-cover (LULC) change in India have emerged as a serious environmental threat that accelerates the impacts of urban heat island intensity (UHII). Three independent investigations have been conducted in this study using a series of Landsat data. The objectives of this work are: (1) To predict the near-future LULC scenario using an integrated model; (2) To understand the connection between band mean for particular LULC class with LST; (3) To analyze the temporal relationship between different types of built-up clusters and LST. The LULC and LST maps reveal that LST increases from 27.01° to 33.86°C, whereas built-up areas rise from 6.93% to 27.10% during 1988–2018, respectively. We observed that the near-future LULC scenario of KMA shows a huge expansion of built-up areas paid by decreased vegetation and open spaces. A clear significant correlation has been found between band mean and LST in all three Landsat sensors with the R2 = 0.84; p<0.02 for Landsat 5 TM, R2 = 0.91 and 0.99; p<0.01 and 0.00 for Landsat 7 ETM+, and R2 = 0.88; p<0.01 for Landsat 8 OLI in connection to our second objective. However, no agreement has been found between different built-up clusters and LST over 30 years of observation. For the first time, this study established the interconnectivity between bands of Landsat sensors and LST. The temporal relationship between different built-up clusters and LST have reviled also for the first time. Beside this, the rising rate of built-up areas was observed by the integrated model. Such alarming condition demands immediate attention to sustainable, and scientific land use regulations under new urbanism policy.
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Special thanks to the US Geological Survey, NASA, and Google earth for providing freely available satellite data. Analyses of the data were supported by the Polish National Research Centre (NCN) within the Project No 2016/21/B/ST10/02271. Sincere thanks are given to the anonymous reviewers and members of the editorial team for their comments and suggestions.
Communicated by Amit Kumar Patra
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Saha, P., Bandopadhyay, S., Kumar, C. et al. Multi-approach synergic investigation between land surface temperature and land-use land-cover. J Earth Syst Sci 129, 74 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12040-020-1342-z
- Land-use land-cover (LULC)
- land surface temperature (LST)
- urban heat island (UHI)
- built-up clusters