Fold interference patterns in Meso-Proterozoic Champaner fold belt (CFB) Gujarat, western India

  • Aditya U JoshiEmail author


This paper documents three phases of folding within the Meso-Proterozoic Champaner Fold Belt (CFB) located at the eastern part of Gujarat, western India. The first phase (\(\hbox {F}_{1})\) displays WNW plunging \(\hbox {F}_{1}\) fold of moderately inclined nature in the schists of the Khandia Formation. The second phase (\(\hbox {F}_{2})\) refolded \(\hbox {F}_{1}\) along a similar trend to produce folds of tight isoclinal nature in the Khandia and Narukot quartzites. Additionally, these \(\hbox {F}_{1}\) folds depict second-order tight, and \(\hbox {F}_{2}\) folds as first-order open type in the younger sequences of the CFB with varying amplitude vs. wavelength ratio. The ratio for \(\hbox {F}_{1}\) folds ranges from 2:1 to 3:1, obtained along 3–4 m length across 3–6 \(\hbox {m}^{2}\) area, whereas for \(\hbox {F}_{2}\) folds the ratio ranges from 1:4 to 1:5 and is obtained along 1–2.5 km length across 0.5–1.5 km\(^{2}\) area. The fold interference pattern developed on account of \(\hbox {F}_{1}\) and \(\hbox {F}_{2 }\) folds has resulted into Type-III or hook-shaped geometry regionally. The last phase of folding is characterised by N–S trending \(\hbox {F}_{3}\) folds of open type over kilometre long limbs of \(\hbox {F}_{1}\) and \(\hbox {F}_{2}\) folds. The superposition of \(\hbox {F}_{1-3 }\) folds developed map scale Type-I or Dome and Basin geometry over Type-III superposed folds. The overall compressional direction for \(\hbox {F}_{1}\) and \(\hbox {F}_{2}\) folds ranges from N–S to NNE–SSW and for \(\hbox {F}_{3}\) ranges from E–W to ESE–WNW.


Champaner Fold Belt (CFB) Narukot interference fold pattern hook shaped dome and basin 



The author wants to thank Prof L S Chamyal, Head, Department of Geology, The M S University of Baroda, Gujarat, for providing necessary facilities and continuous encouragement. The author would like to express his deep gratitude to his PhD guide Prof Manoj A Limaye for his tremendous support and for sharing his ideas about the terrain. Valuable discussion with Prof Bhushan S Deota is duly acknowledged. Author expresses his deep sense of gratitude to the Editor-in-Chief, Prof N V Chalapathi Rao and Prof Saibal Gupta (Corresponding editor). The review comments by Prof A Manish Mamtani (IIT, KGP) and anonymous reviewer helped the author to improve the quality of the text.


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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geology, Faculty of ScienceThe Maharaja Sayajirao University of BarodaVadodaraIndia

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