Sensitivity of simulated cyclone Gonu intensity and track to variety of parameterizations: Advanced hurricane WRF model application
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Domain configuration and several physical parameterization settings such as planetary boundary layer, cumulus convection, and ocean–atmosphere surface flux parameterizations can play significant roles in numerical prediction of tropical cyclones. The present study focuses to improve the prediction of the TC Gonu by investigating the sensitivity of simulations to mentioned configurations with the Advanced Hurricane WRF model. The experiments for domain design sensitivity with 27 km resolution has been shown moving the domains towards the east improve the results, due to better account for the large-scale process. The fixed and movable nests on a 9-km grid were considered separately within the coarse domain and their results showed that despite salient improvement in simulated intensity, an accuracy reduction in simulated track was observed. Increasing horizontal resolution to 3 km incredibly reduced the simulated intensity accuracy when compared to 27 km resolution. Thereafter, different initial conditions were experimented and the results have shown that the cyclone of 1000 hPa sea level pressure is the best simulation initial condition in predicting the track and intensity for cyclone Gonu. The sensitivity of simulations to ocean–atmosphere surface-flux parameterizations on a 9-km grid showed the combination of ‘Donelan scheme’ for momentum exchanges along with ‘Large and Pond scheme’ for heat and moisture exchanges provide the best prediction for cyclone Gonu intensity. The combination of YSU and MYJ PBL scheme with KF convection for prediction of track and the combination of YSU PBL scheme with KF convection for prediction of intensity are found to have better performance than the other combinations. These 22 sensitivity experiments also implicitly lead us to the conclusion that each particular forecast aspect of TC (e.g., track, intensity, etc.) will require its own special design.
KeywordsTropical cyclone Gonu surface fluxes PBL cumulus convection AHW
We would like to acknowledge the generous help of India Meteorological Department and Iran Meteorological Organization (IRIMO), for providing essential data. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments that improved the quality of manuscript. The funding was provided by the University of Hormozgan (Bandar Abbas, Iran).
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