Fossil wood flora from the Siwalik Group of Arunachal Pradesh, India and its climatic and phytogeographic significance



The plant fossil records from the Siwalik Group of Arunachal Pradesh, India are far from satisfactory due to remoteness and dense vegetation of the area. We report seven fossil woods of which three belong to the Middle Siwalik (Subansiri Formation), while the rest are from the Upper Siwalik (Kimin Formation). The modern analogues of the fossils from the Middle Siwalik are Lophopetalum littorale (Celastraceae), Afzelia-Intsia and Sindora siamensis (Fabaceae) and from the Upper Siwalik are Miliusa velutina (Annonaceae), Calophyllum tomentosum and Kayea (Calophyllaceae) and Diospyros melanoxylon (Ebenaceae). The dominance of diffuse porosity in the fossil woods indicates a tropical climate with low seasonality (little variation) in temperature, while a high proportion of large vessels and simple perforation plates in the assemblage infer high precipitation during the deposition of the sediments. The aforesaid inference is in strong agreement with the previous quantitative reconstruction based on fossil leaves. Several modern analogues of the fossil taxa are now growing in low latitudes possibly due to an increase in seasonality (increased variation) in temperature caused by the rising Himalaya.


Megaflora systematics Neogene northeast India palaeoclimate 



The authors are thankful to the Director, Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow for permission to publish the paper. They are grateful to Prof. Anäis Boura of UPMC, Paris and two anonymous reviewers for their fruitful suggestions to improve our manuscript.


  1. Awasthi N 1970 A fossil wood of Ebenaceae from Tertiary of south India; Palaeobotanist 18 192–196.Google Scholar
  2. Awasthi N 1977 Revsion of Hopeoxylon indicum Navale and Shoreoxylon speciosum Navale from the Cuddalore Series near Pondicherry; Palaeobotanist 24 102–107.Google Scholar
  3. Awasthi N 1984 Studies on some carbonized woods from the Neyveli lignite deposits, India; Geophytol. 14 82–95.Google Scholar
  4. Awasthi N and Ahuja M 1982 Investigation of some carbonized woods from the Neogene of Varkala in Kerala coast; Geophytol. 12 245–259.Google Scholar
  5. Bailey I W and Sinnott E W 1915 A botanical index of Cretaceous and Tertiary climates; Science 41 831–834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey I W and Sinnott E W 1916 The climatic distribution of certain types of angiosperm leaves; Am. J. Bot. 3 24–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bamford M K 2011 Late Pliocene woody vegetation of Area 41, Koobi flora, East Turkana Basin, Kenya; Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 164 191–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bande M B 1973 A petrified dicotyledonous wood from the Deccan intertrappean beds of Mandla district, Madhya Pradesh; Botanique 4 41–47.Google Scholar
  9. Bande M B and Chandra S 1990 Early Tertiary vegetational reconstruction around Nagpur–Chhindwara and Mandala, central India; Palaeobotanist 38 196–208.Google Scholar
  10. Bande M B and Srivastava G P 1988 Fossil woods of Guttiferae (Kayea) and Lauraceae from the Tertiary of West Bengal; Geophytol. 18 217–218.Google Scholar
  11. Baas P 1976 Some functional and adaptive aspects of vessel member morphology; Leiden Bot. Ser. 3 157–181.Google Scholar
  12. Baas P 1986 Terminology of imperforate tracheary elements-in defence of libriform fibres with minutely bordered pits; IAWA Bull. N. S. 7 82–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bera S and Banerjee M 2001 Petrified wood remains from Neogene sediments of the Bengal basin, India, with remarks on palaeoecology; Palaeontogr. 260B 167–199.Google Scholar
  14. Bera S, Parua D K and Sen Illora 2001 Fossil wood resembling Sindora Miq. from the Neogene of West Bengal, India; Indian J. Earth Sci. 28 26–31.Google Scholar
  15. Bera S, De A and De B 2004 First record of Elaeocarpus Linn. fruits from the upper Siwalik sediments (Kimin Formation) of Arunachal Pradesh, India; J. Geol. Soc. India 64 350–352.Google Scholar
  16. Bera S and Khan M 2009 Record of fruit and leaflet cf. Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre from the upper Siwalik sediments (Kimin Formation) of Arunachal Pradesh; In: Advances in Plant Biology – D Bhattacharya Birth Centenary Commemorative Volume (eds) Mondal S and Bhattacharya S (Berlin: Springer-Verlag), pp. 432–441.Google Scholar
  17. Bera S, Gupta S, Khan M A, De A and Mukhopadhyay R 2014 First megafossil evidence of Cyatheaceous tree fern from the Indian Cenozoic; J. Earth Syst. Sci. 123 1433–1438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carlquist S 1975 Ecological Strategies of Xylem Evolution (Berkeley: California University Press).Google Scholar
  19. Carlquist S 1977 Ecological factors in wood evolution: A floristic approach; Am. J. Bot. 64 887–896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carlquist S 1988 Comparative Wood Anatomy: Systematic, Ecological, and Evolutionary Aspects of Dicotyledon Wood (Berlin: Springer).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chirouze F, Dupont-Nivet G, Huyghe P, van der Beek P, Chakraborti T, Bernet M and Erens V 2012 Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene Siwalik Group in the far eastern Himalaya: Kameng section, Arunachal Pradesh, India; J. Asian Earth Sci. 44 117–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chitaley S D and Patil G V 1972 An ebenaceous fossil wood infected with deuteromyceteous fungus from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of India; Botanique 3 99–105.Google Scholar
  23. Chowdhury K A and Tandan K N 1958 Family Annonaceae; In: Indian Woods (eds) Chowdhury K A and Ghosh S S (Delhi: The Manager of Publications) 1 16–30.Google Scholar
  24. Chowdhury K A and Tandan K N 1949 Kayeoxylon assamicum, gen. et sp. nov., a fossil dicotyledonous wood from Assam; Proc. Nat. Inst. Sci. India 15 59–65.Google Scholar
  25. Chowdhury K A, Ghosh S S and Kazmi M H 1960 Pahudioxylon bankurensis gen. et sp. nov. – a fossil dicotyledonous wood from the Miocene beds of Bankura District, West Bengal; Proc. Nat. Inst. Sci. India 26 22–28.Google Scholar
  26. Crawley M 2001 Angiosperm woods from British Lower Cretaceous and Paleogene deposits, In: Special Papers in Palaentology (London: The Palaeontological Association) 66 100p.Google Scholar
  27. Du N 1988 Fossil wood from the late Tertiary of Burma; Proc. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akad. van Wetenschappen 91 Ser. B 213–236.Google Scholar
  28. Estrada-Ruiz E, Martinez-Cabrera H I, Cevallos-Ferriz S R S 2007 Fossil woods from the late Campanian–early Maastrichtian Olmos Formation, Coahuila, Mexico; Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 145 123–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Felix J 1882 Studien über fossile Hölzer (Leipzig: Diss. Von Pöschel and Trepte).Google Scholar
  30. Feng X X, Yi T M and Jin J H 2010 First record of Paraphyllanthoxylon from China; IAWA J. 31 89–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ghosh P K and Roy S K 1982 Fossil wood of Caesalpinioideae from the Miocene of West Bengal, India; Acta Bot. Indica 10 50–55.Google Scholar
  32. Ghosh S S and Kazmi M H 1958 Ebenoxylon indicum sp. nov., a new fossil record from Tirap Frontier Division, NEFA, Assam; Sci. Cult. 24 187–188.Google Scholar
  33. Ghosh S S and Kazmi M H 1961 Pahudioxylon sahnii sp. nov., a new fossil record from the Miocene(?) of Tripura; Sci. Cult. 27 96–98.Google Scholar
  34. Gregory M, Poole I and Wheeler E A 2009 Fossil dicot wood names – an annotated list with full bibliography; IAWA J. Suppl. 6 1–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Guleria J S 1984 Leguminous woods from the Tertiary of District Kachchh, Gujarat, western India; Palaeobotanist 31 238–254.Google Scholar
  36. Ilic J 1991 CSIRO atlas of hard woods (Berlin: Springer).Google Scholar
  37. International Association of Wood Anatomists 1989 IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood identification; IAWA New Ser. 10 219–332.Google Scholar
  38. Jansson R 2003 Global patterns in endemism explained by past climatic change; Proc. Roy. Soc. London B 270 583–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jeong E K, Kim K, Suzuki M and Kim J W 2009 Fossil woods from the Lower coal bearing formation of the Janggi Group (Early Miocene) in the Pohang Basin, Korea; Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 153 124–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Johnson N M, Stix J, Tauxe L, Cerveny P P and Tahirkheli R A K 1985 Palaeomagnetic chronology, fluvial processes and tectonic implications of the Siwalik deposits near Chinji village, Pakistan; J. Geol. 93 27–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Joshi A and Chakraborty P P 2001 Systematic geological mapping in parts of east and west Kameng districts, Arunachal Pradesh; Geol. Surv. India Unpubl. Progress Rep. for F.S. 1999–2000. Google Scholar
  42. Joshi A and Mehrotra R C 2003 A thelypteridaceous fern from the Lower Siwalik of the East Kameng district, Arunachal Pradesh, India; J. Geol. Soc. India 61 483–486.Google Scholar
  43. Joshi A and Mehrotra R C 2007 Megaremains from the Siwalik sediments of West and East Kameng districts, Arunachal Pradesh;J. Geol. Soc. India 69 1256–1266.Google Scholar
  44. Joshi A, Mehrotra R C and De A 2003a A fossil wood from the Upper Siwalik sediments of West Kameng District, Arunachal Pradesh, India; Proc. Fourth South Asia Geological Congress (GEOSAS - IV) (Kolkata: The Director General Geol. Surv. India), pp. 312–315.Google Scholar
  45. Joshi A, Tewari R, Mehrotra R C, Chakraborty P P and De A 2003b Plant remains from the Upper Siwalik sediments of West Kameng District, Arunachal Pradesh, India; J. Geol. Soc. India 61 319–324.Google Scholar
  46. Karunakaran C 1974 Geology and mineral resources of the states of India. Part IV – Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura; Geol. Surv. India Misc. Publ. No. 30 1–124.Google Scholar
  47. Karunakaran C and Ranga Rao A 1979 Status of exploration for hydrocarbons in the Himalayan region – contributions to stratigraphy and structure; Geol. Surv. India Misc. Publ. 41 1–66.Google Scholar
  48. Kazmi S M H 1982 Ebenaceae; In: Indian woods (ed.) Purkayastha S K (Delhi: Controller of Publications) 4 122–131.Google Scholar
  49. Khan M and Bera S 2007 Dysoxylum miocostulatum sp. nov. – a fossil leaflet of Meliaceae from the Lower Siwalik sediments of West Kameng district, Arunachal Pradesh, eastern India; Indian J. Geol. 79 63–68.Google Scholar
  50. Khan M and Bera S 2010 Record of fossil fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. from the Neogene of Arunachal Pradesh; Curr. Curr Sci. 98 1573–1574.Google Scholar
  51. Khan M and Bera S 2014 New lauraceous species from the Siwalik forest of Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya, and their palaeoclimatic and palaeogeographic implications; Turk J. Bot. 38 453–464.Google Scholar
  52. Khan M A and Bera S 2016 First fossil evidence of Connaraceae R. Br. from Indian Cenozoic and its phytogeographical significance; J. Earth Syst. Sci. 125 1079–1087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Khan M A and Bera S 2017 First discovery of fossil winged seeds of Pinus L. (family Pinaceae) from the Indian Cenozoic and its palaeobiogeographic significance; J. Earth Syst. Sci. 126(5) Article ID 63.Google Scholar
  54. Khan M, De B and Bera S 2008 Fossil leaves resembling modern Terminalia chebula Retzius from the Lower Siwalik sediments of Arunachal Pradesh, India; Pleione 2 38–41.Google Scholar
  55. Khan M, De B and Bera S 2009 Leaf-impressions of Calophyllum L. from the Middle Siwalik sediments of Arunachal Sub-Himalaya, India; Pleione 3 101–106.Google Scholar
  56. Khan M, Ghosh R, Bera S, Spicer R A and Spicer T E V 2011 Floral diversity during Plio–Pleistocene Siwalik sedimentation (Kimin Formation) in Arunachal Pradesh, India and its palaeoclimatic significance; Palaeodivers. Palaeoenviron. 91 237–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Khan M A, Spicer R A, Bera S, Ghosh R, Yang J, Spicer T E V, Guo S X, Tao S, Frédéric J and Grote P J 2014a Miocene to Pleistocene floras and climate of the Eastern Himalayan Siwaliks, and new palaeoelevation estimates for the Namling–Oiyug Basin, Tibet; Global Planet. Change 113 1–10.Google Scholar
  58. Khan M A, Spicer T E V, Spicer R A and Bera S 2014b Occurrence of Gynocardia odorata Robert Brown (Achariaceae, formerly Flacourtiaceae) from the Plio-Pleistocene sediments of Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India and its palaeoclimatic and phytogeographic significance; Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 211 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Khan M A, Bera S, Ghosh R, Spicer Robert A and Spicer T E V 2015 Leaf cuticular morphology of some angiosperm taxa from the Siwalik sediments (middle Miocene to lower Pleistocene) of Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya: Systematic and palaeoclimatic implications; Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 214 9–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Khan M A, Spicer R A, Spicer T E V and Bera S 2016 Occurrence of Shorea Roxburgh ex C. F. Gaertner (Dipterocarpaceae) in the Neogene Siwalik forests of eastern Himalaya and its biogeography during the Cenozoic of southeast Asia; Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 233 236–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Khan M A, Spicer R A, Spicer T E V and Bera S 2017 Evidence for diversification of Calophyllum L. (Calophyllaceae) in the Neogene Siwalik forests of eastern Himalaya; Plant Syst. Evol. 303 371–386.Google Scholar
  62. Kumar G 1997 Geology of Arunachal Pradesh (Bangalore: Geol. Soc. India).Google Scholar
  63. Kramer K 1974 Die Tertiären Hölzer südost-Asiens (unter ausschluss der Dipterocarpaceae). Part 2. Palaeontogr. 145B 1–150.Google Scholar
  64. Kräusel R 1939 Ergebnisse der Forschungsreisen Prof. E. Stromers in den Wüsten Ägyptens. IV. Die fossilen Floren Ägyptens; Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 47 1–140.Google Scholar
  65. Kribs D A 1959 Commercial foreign woods on the American market (Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University).Google Scholar
  66. Lacey W S 1963 Palaeobotany technique; In: Viewpoint in Biology (eds) Carthey J D and Duddington I (London: Butterworths) 2 202–243.Google Scholar
  67. Lakhanpal R N and Awasthi N 1965 Fossil woods of Calophyllum from the Tertiary of south India; Palaeobotanist 13 328–336.Google Scholar
  68. Lalitha C and Prakash U 1980 Fossil wood of Sindora from the Tertiary of Assam with a critical analysis of anatomically allied forms; Geophytol. 10 174–187.Google Scholar
  69. Lemoigne Y and Beauchamp J 1973 Paléoflores tertiares de la région de Welkite (Ethiopie, province du Shoa); Bull. Soc. Geol. France 7e Serie 14 336–352.Google Scholar
  70. Licht A, Boura A, De Franceschi D, Ducrocq S, Aung Naing Soe and Jaeger J-J 2014 Fossil woods from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation, Myanmar; Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 202 29–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Licht A, Boura A, De Franceschi D, Utesher T, Sein C and Jaeger J-J 2015 Late middle Eocene fossil wood of Myanmar: Implications for the landscape and the climate of the Eocene Bengal Bay; Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 216 44–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Louvet P 1975 Sur trois bois fossiles du Tertiarie de Libye; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 121 269–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mabberley D J 1997 The plant book: A portable dictionary of vascular plants (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  74. Mehrotra R C, Prakash U and Bande M B 1984 Fossil wood of Lophopetalum and Artocarpus from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of Mandla District, Madhya Pradesh, India; Palaeobotanist 32 310–320.Google Scholar
  75. Mehrotra R C, Awasthi N and Dutta S K 1999 Study of fossil wood from the upper Tertiary sediments (Siwalik) of Arunachal Pradesh, India and its implication in palaeoecological and phytogeographical interpretations; Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 107 223–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mehrotra R C, Liu Xiu-Qun, Li Cheng-Sen, Wang Yu-Fei and Chauhan M S 2005 Comparison of the Tertiary flora of southwest China and northeast India and its significance in the antiquity of the modern Himalayan flora; Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 135 145–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mehrotra R C, Bera S K, Basumatary S K and Srivastava G 2011 Study of fossil wood from the Middle–Late Miocene sediments of Dhemaji and Lakhimpur districts of Assam, India and its palaeoecological and palaeophytogeographical implications; J. Earth Syst. Sci. 120 681–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mehrotra R C, Tiwari R P, Srivastava G and Shukla A 2013 Further contribution to the Neogene petrified wood forest of Mizoram, India; Chinese Sci. Bull. 58 (Suppl. 1) 104–110.Google Scholar
  79. Mehrotra R C, Srivastava Gaurav and Basumatary S K 2016 Fossil woods from the late Miocene–Pliocene sediments of Arunachal Pradesh; Geophytol. 46 163–172.Google Scholar
  80. Metcalfe C R and Chalk L 1950 Anatomy of the dicotyledons 1 and 2 (Oxford: Clarendon Press).Google Scholar
  81. Miles A 1978 Photomicrographs of world woods (London: Building Research Establishment Report).Google Scholar
  82. Mukherjee D and Prasad M 2013 An ebenaceous wood from the Neyveli lignite, South Arcot District, Tamil Nadu, India; Geophytol. 42 127–133.Google Scholar
  83. Müller-Stoll W R and Mädel-Angeliewa E 1967 Die fossilen Leguminosen hölzer, revision der mit Leguminosen verglichenen fossilen hölzer und beschreibungen älterer und neurer Arten; Palaeontogr. 119B 95–174.Google Scholar
  84. Müller-Stoll W R and Mädel-Angeliewa E 1986 Ein neues Guttifern-Holz aus dem Tertiär von Java, Calophylloxylon intermedium sp. nov; Feddes Repert. 97 225–233.Google Scholar
  85. Navale G K B 1963 Fossil woods of Leguminosae from Tertiary rocks of the Cuddalore Series near Pondicherry, India; Palaeobotanist 11 54–65.Google Scholar
  86. Nigam P N 1963 Family Celastraceae; In: Indian Woods 2 (ed.) Anonymous (Delhi: The Manager of Publications), pp. 180–194.Google Scholar
  87. Normand D 1950 Atlas de Bois de la Cote d’Ivoire, 1 (Nogent-sur-Marne: Centre Technique for Tropical Forestier).Google Scholar
  88. Pearson R S and Brown H P 1932 Commercial Timbers of India 1 and 2 (Calcutta: Government of India Central Publication Branch).Google Scholar
  89. Pilgrim G E 1910 Preliminary note on a revised classification of the Tertiary fresh water deposits of India; Rec. Geol. Surv. India 40 185–205.Google Scholar
  90. Poole I 2000 Fossil angiosperm wood: Its role in the reconstruction of biodiversity and palaeoenvironment; Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 134 361–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Prakash U 1966a Some fossil dicotyledonous woods from the Tertiary of eastern India; Palaeobotanist 14 223–235.Google Scholar
  92. Prakash U 1966b Pahudioxylon deomaliense sp. nov., a new fossil wood from the Tertiary of eastern India; Curr. Sci. 34 433–434.Google Scholar
  93. Prakash U 1978 Fossil woods from the lower Siwalik beds of Uttar Pradesh, India; Palaeobotanist 25 376–392.Google Scholar
  94. Prakash U 1979 Some more fossil woods from the Lower Siwalik beds of Himachal Pradesh, India; Him. Geol. 8 61–81.Google Scholar
  95. Prakash U 1981 Further occurrence of fossil woods from the Lower Siwalik beds of Uttar Pradesh, India; Palaeo-botanist 28–29 374–388.Google Scholar
  96. Prakash U and Tripathi P P 1970 Fossil woods from the Tipam Sandstones near Hailakandi, Assam; Palaeo-botanist 18 183–191.Google Scholar
  97. Prakash U and Tripathi P P 1975 Fossil dicotyledonous woods from the Tertiary of eastern India; Palaeobotanist 22 51–62.Google Scholar
  98. Prakash U, Boureau E and Louvet P 1967 Les plans ligneux convergents et la nomenclature de bois de Legumineuses Tertiaires du Sahara et d’Asie; Taxon 16 505–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Prakash U, Mishra V P and Srivastava G P 1988 Fossil wood resembling Sindora from the Tertiary of Palamau District, Bihar; Rec. Geol. Surv. India 118 69–73.Google Scholar
  100. Prakash U, Lalitha V and Tripathi P P 1994 Plant remains from the Tipam sandstones of northeast India with remarks on the palaeoecology of the region during the Miocene; Palaeontogr. 231B 113–146.Google Scholar
  101. Prasad M 1989 Some more fossil woods from the lower Siwalik sediments of Kalagarh, Uttar Pradesh; Geophytol. 18 135–144.Google Scholar
  102. Prasad M 1993 Siwalik (Middle Miocene) woods from the Kalagarh area in the Himalayan foothills and their bearing on palaeoclimate and phytogeography; Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 76 49–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Prasad M 2006 Plant fossils from Siwalik sediments of Himachal Pradesh and their palaeoclimatic significance; Phytomorphol. 56 9–22.Google Scholar
  104. Prasad M 2008 Angiospermous fossil leaves from the Siwalik foreland basins and their palaeoclimatic implications; Palaeobotanist 57 177–215.Google Scholar
  105. Prive-Gill C, Thomas H and Lebret P 1999 Fossil wood of Sindora (Leguminosae, Caesalpiniaceae) from the Oligo-Miocene of Saudi Arabia: Paleobiogeographical considerations; Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 107 191–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Raju D S N and Misra R 2009 Proterozoic and Phanerozoic integrated stratigraphy of south-east Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Sri Lanka); In: ONGC Bulletin (eds) Raju D S N and Misra R (Dehradun: KDMIPE) 44(2) 203–236.Google Scholar
  107. Ranga Rao A, Aggarwal R P, Sharma U N, Bhalla M S and Nanda A C 1988 Magnetic polarity stratigraphy and vertebrate palaeontology of the Upper Siwalik Subgroup of Jammu Hills, India; J. Geol. Soc. India 3l 361–385.Google Scholar
  108. Ramesh Rao K, Purkayastha S K, Shahi R, Juneja K B S, Negi B S and Kazmi H M 1972 Family Leguminosae; In: Indian Woods (eds) Ramesh Rao K and Purkayastha S K (Delhi: The Manager of Publications) 3 264–323.Google Scholar
  109. Ridley H N 1967 The flora of Malaya Peninsula, 1 (Amsterdam: Asher).Google Scholar
  110. Salard-Cheboldaeff M, Dupéron-Laudoueneix M and Dupéron J 2012 Bois minéralisés cénozoïques de Nouvelle-Calédonie; Palaeontogr. 288B 65–97.Google Scholar
  111. Selmeier A 1976 Zwei verkieselte Diospyros-Hölzer aus tertiaren Schichten Sud-Bayerns; Naturw. Z. Niederbayern 26 20–46.Google Scholar
  112. Shashi, Pandey S M and Tripathi P P 2006 Fossil leaf impressions from Siwalik sediments of Himalayan foot hills of Uttaranchal, India and their significance; Palaeobotanist 55 77–87.Google Scholar
  113. Shashi, Pandey S M and Tripathi P P 2008 Siwalik (Middle Miocene) leaf impressions from Tanakpur area, Uttaranchal and their bearing on climate; Geophytol. 37 99–108.Google Scholar
  114. Singh T and Prakash U 1980 Leaf-impressions from the Siwalik sediments of Arunachal Pradesh; Geophytol. 10 104–107.Google Scholar
  115. Spicer R A, Bera S, De Bera S, Spicer T E V, Srivastava G, Mehrotra R, Mehrotra N and Yang J 2011 Why do foliar physiognomic climate estimates sometimes differ from those observed? Insights from taphonomic information loss and a CLAMP case study from the Ganges Delta; Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 302 381–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Srivastava G and Mehrotra R C 2013 Endemism due to climate change: Evidence from Poeciloneuron Bedd. (Clusiaceae) leaf fossil from Assam, India; J. Earth Syst. Sci. 122 283–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Srivastava G, Mehrotra R C and Tiwari R P 2009 Fossil wood from the Tipam Group of North Hlimen, Mizoram; Palaeobotanist 58 29–32.Google Scholar
  118. Srivastava G, Spicer R A, Spicer T E V, Yang J, Kumar M, Mehrotra R and Mehrotra N 2012 Megaflora and palaeoclimate of a Late Oligocene tropical delta, Makum Coalfield, Assam: Evidence for the early development of the south Asia monsoon; Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 342–343 130–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Srivastava G, Mehrotra R C, Shukla A and Tiwari R P 2014 Miocene vegetation and climate in extra peninsular India: Megafossil evidences; Palaeontol. Soc. India Spec. Publ. No. 5 283–290.Google Scholar
  120. Srivastava G, Gaur R and Mehrotra R C 2015 Lagerstroemia L. from the middle Miocene Siwalik deposits, northern India: Implication for Cenozoic range shifts of the genus and the family Lythraceae; J. Earth Syst. Sci. 24 227–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Srivastava R and Mehrotra R C 2009 Plant fossils from Dafla Formation, West Kameng District, Arunachal Pradesh; Palaeobotanist 58 33–49.Google Scholar
  122. Tandon K N and Purkayastha S K 1958 Family Guttiferae; In: Indian Woods 1 (eds) Chowdhury K A and Ghosh S S (Delhi: The Manager of Publications), pp. 69–85.Google Scholar
  123. Tandon S K 1991 The Himalayan Foreland: Focus on Siwalik Basin; In: Sedimentary Basins of India: Tectonic Context (eds) Tandon S K, Pant C C and Casshyap S M (Nainital: Gyanodaya Prakashan), pp. 177–201.Google Scholar
  124. Tiwari R P, Mehrotra R C, Srivastava Gaurav and Shukla Anumeha 2012 The vegetation and climate of a Neogene petrified wood forest of Mizoram, India; J. Asian Earth Sci. 61 143–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Trivedi B S and Srivastava R 1982 A fossil wood of Ebenaceae from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of Madhya Pradesh (India); J. Indian Bot. Soc. 61 254–259.Google Scholar
  126. Valdiya K S 2002 Emergence and evolution of Himalaya: Reconstructing history in the light of recent studies; Prog. Phys. Geogr. 26 360–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Vozenin-Serra C 1981 Les structures ligneuses Neogens du plateau de Di Linh (Sud-Vietnam); Palaeontogr. 177B 136–161.Google Scholar
  128. Wiemann M C, Wheeler E A, Manchester S R and Portier K M 1998 Dicotyledonous wood anatomical characters as predictors of climate; Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 139 83–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wheeler E A and Baas P 1991 A survey of the fossil record for dicotyledonous wood and its significance for evolutionary and ecological wood anatomy; IAWA Bull. New Ser. 13 275–332.Google Scholar
  130. Wheeler E A and Baas P 1993 The potentials and limitations of dicotyledonous wood anatomy for climatic reconstructions; Paleobiol. 19 487–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wheeler E A, Pearson R G, La Pasha C A, Zack T and Hatley W 1986 Computer aided wood identification; North Carolina Agr. Res. Service Bull. 474 1–96.Google Scholar
  132. Willis J C 1973 A dictionary of flowering plants and ferns (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  133. Wolfe J A 1979 Temperature parameters of humid to mesic forests of eastern Asia and relation to forests of other regions of the Northern Hemisphere and Australasia; U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 1106 1–37.Google Scholar
  134. Wolfe J A and Upchurch Jr G R 1987 North American nonmarine climates and vegetation during the Late Cretaceous; Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 61 33–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Woodcock D W and Ignas C M 1994 Prevalence of wood characters in eastern North America: What characters are most promising for interpreting climates from fossil wood; Am. J. Bot. 81 1243–1251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Woodward F I, Lomas M R and Kelly C K 2004 Global climate and the distribution of plant biomes; Proc. Roy. Soc. London B 359 1465–1476.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Birbal Sahni Institute of PalaeosciencesLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Geological Survey of IndiaGandhinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations