We employed the wavelength-interrogated surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method to characterize the real-time kinetics of urea-urease hydrolysis reaction in response to a CO2-free N2 environment and CO2-enriched ambient reaction medium. We established that a simple label-free SPR probe could accurately extract kinetic parameters from the nature of the sharp jump of the SPR wavelength shift in the reaction profile. The kinetic analysis showed that CO2 production increases with increasing reaction time irrespective of CO2-free N2 or CO2-enriched reaction environment. We also explored the essential insights into the isotopic fractionations of 12CO2, 13CO2, 12C18O16O in the reaction medium utilizing integrated cavity output spectroscopy. The plasmonic system measured the reaction rate in the order of 10-7 M/s for urea species in the presence of the urease enzyme. This study deepens our understanding of plasmonic-based enzymatic urea hydrolysis in real time and opens a new way to quantify chemical reaction kinetics for various other systems.
This is the first detailed experimental investigation of the real-time kinetics of urea-urease hydrolysis reaction exploiting wavelength-interrogated surface plasmon resonance method in response to produced CO2 in the CO2-free N2 environment and CO2-enriched ambient reaction medium utilizing integrated cavity output spectroscopy.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Graham D and Miftahussurur M 2018 Helicobacter pylori urease for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: A mini review J. Adv. Res. 13 51
Tabatabai M and Bremner J 1972 Assay of urease activity in soils Soil Biol. Biochem. 4 479
Qin Y and Cabral J 2002 Properties and Applications of Urease Biocatal. Biotransform. 20 1
Ran D and Kawasaki S 2016 Effective use of plant-derived urease in the field of geoenvironmental/geotechnical engineering J. Civ. Environ. Eng. 6 1
Maithani S, Pal M, Maity A and Pradhan M 2017 Isotope selective activation: a new insight into the catalytic activity of urease RSC Adv. 7 31372
Wrobel M et al. 2012 pH Wave-front propagation in the urea-urease reaction Biophys. J. 103 610
Paliwal A, Tomar M and Gupta V 2019 Refractive index sensor using long-range surface plasmon resonance with prism coupler Plasmonics 14 375
Li J, Han D, Zeng J, Deng J, Hu N and Yang J 2020 Multi-channel surface plasmon resonance biosensor using prism-based wavelength interrogation Opt. Express 28 14007
Ibrahim J, Masri M, Verrier I, Kampfe T, Veillas C, Celle F, et al. 2019 Surface plasmon resonance based temperature sensors in liquid environment Sensors 19 3354
Fisher R and Fivash M 1994 Surface plasmon resonance-based methods for measuring the kinetics and binding affinities of biomolecular interactions Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 5 389
Homola J 2003 Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377 528
Myszka D 1997 Kinetic analysis of macro molecular interactions using surface plasmon resonance biosensors Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 8 50
Wang X, Ma M, Wang X and Wang S 2020 Surface plasmon resonance sensors for concentration and reaction kinetic detections. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.92549. In: Analytical Chemistry - Advancement, Perspectives and Applications A Nanda Srivastva (Ed.) IntechOpen; 2021. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.87743
Yang D, Fan J, Cao F, Deng Z, Pojmanb J and Ji L 2019 Immobilization adjusted clock reaction in the urea–urease–H+ reaction system RSC Adv. 9 3514
Menon P, Said F, Mei G, Mohamed M, Zain A, Shaari S and Majlis B 2019 High sensitivity Au-based Kretschmann surface plasmon resonance sensor for urea detection Sains Malays. 48 1179
Menon P, Said F, Mei G, Berhanuddin D, Umar A, Shaari S and Majlis B 2018 Urea and creatinine detection on nano laminated gold thin film using Kretschmann based surface plasmon resonance biosensor PLoS ONE 13 e0201228
Vikas, Gupt S, Tejavath K and Verma R 2020 Urea detection using bio-synthesized gold nanoparticles: an SPR/LSPR based sensing approach realized on optical fiber Opt. Quant. Electron 52 278
Chauhan M, Maddi C, Jha A, Subramanian V and Valdastri P 2019 Characterization of Urease enzyme using Raman and FTIR Spectroscopy in Biophotonics Congress: Optics in the Life Sciences Congress 2019 (BODA,BRAIN,NTM,OMA,OMP), OSA Technical Digest (Optica Publishing Group, 2019), paper JT4A.46
Chauhan M, Jha A, Subramanian V and Valdastri P 2020 PH characterization of urease using Raman Spectroscopy in Biophotonics Congress: Biomedical Optics 2020 (Translational, Microscopy, OCT, OTS, BRAIN), OSA Technical Digest (Optica Publishing Group, 2020), paper JTh2A.14.
Maithani S, Maity A, Pal M, Bhattacharya S, Banik G, Ghosh C, et al. 2019 Isotopic evidences of the preferential coordination between 12CO2 and urease enzyme Chem. Phys. 520 21
Banerjee J and Ray M 2017 Unconventional generation of optical vortex beam using axicon pair and a birefringent lens: validation of plasmonic excitation Appl. Phys. Lett. 110 181105
Homola J, Yee S and Gauglitz G 1999 Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review Sens. Actuat. B 54 3
Bera M, Banerjee J and Ray M 2015 Surface plasmon resonance mediated fringe modulation using a birefringent lens creating radial shearing environment J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32 961
Zhang J, Zhang L and Xu W 2012 Surface plasmon polaritons: physics and applications J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45 113001
Zerner B 1991 Recent advances in the chemistry of an old enzyme, urease Bioorg. Chem. 19 116
Karplus P, Pearson M and Hausinger R 1997 70 Years of Crystalline Urease: What Have We Learned? Acc. Chem. Res. 30 330
Lei T, Gu Q, Guo X, Ma J, Zhang Y and Sun X 2018 Urease activity and urea hydrolysis rate under coupling effects of moisture content, temperature, and nitrogen application rate Int. J. Agric. Biol. Eng. 11 132
Yesudasu V, Pradhan H S and Pandya R J 2021 Recent progress in surface plasmon resonance based sensors: A comprehensive review Heliyon 7 e06321
Maity A, Pal M, Som S, Maithani S, Chaudhuri S and Pradhan M 2017 Natural 18O and 13C-urea in gastric juice: a new route for non-invasive detection of ulcers Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 409 193
Matthews D E and Downey R S 1984 Measurement of urea kinetics in humans: a validation of stable isotope tracer methods Am. J. Physiol. 246 E519
J. Banerjee would like to acknowledge the Science & Engineering Research Board, Government of India, for funding the project (PDF/2020/001422).
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflicts to disclose.
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Banerjee, J., Pradhan, M. A combined surface plasmonic and isotope-selective spectroscopic study toward a deeper understanding of real-time enzymatic urea hydrolysis. J Chem Sci 135, 53 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12039-023-02175-0