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Solution structure of loperamide and β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes using NMR spectroscopy

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Loperamide (LPR) is a synthetic, poorly water soluble, peripherally acting opiate agonist drug used for the treatment of diarrhea. Major challenges in formulating this drug for clinical applications include solubility enhancement and improved stability in biological systems. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are chiral, truncated cone shaped; cyclic oligosaccharides that can encapsulate a variety of poorly water soluble drug molecules into inclusion complexes, thereby increasing their stability and solubility. 1H NMR spectroscopic studies showed the inclusion complexation between β-CD and LPR, based on the upfield shift changes in the β-CD cavity protons (H-3′ and H-5′) and downfield shift changes in the guest (LPR) protons. 2D COSY spectral data was used for assignment of β-CD as well as LPR protons and 2D ROESY spectral data to know the inclusion of LPR inside the β-CD cavity. The 1: 1 stoichiometry and overall association constant (K a) were determined by using Scott’s plot method to be 68·805 M−1. 2D ROESY spectral data suggest that the inclusion of aromatic rings of LPR in β-CD cavity can be from narrower as well as the wider rim side and the six possible 1: 1 LPR: β-CD inclusion complexes have been proposed. Thus, we anticipate that complexation of LPR with β-CD would increase its solubility and stability in biological system.

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Correspondence to Santosh Kumar Upadhyay.

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Upadhyay, S.K., Ali, S.M. Solution structure of loperamide and β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes using NMR spectroscopy. J Chem Sci 121, 521–527 (2009).

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