Effect of sodium deoxycholate and sodium cholate on DPPC vesicles: A fluorescence anisotropy study with diphenylhexatriene


Effects of two bile salts, namely sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) and sodium cholate (NaC), on DPPC small unilamellar vesicles have been investigated using the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy (r ss ) of diphenylhexatriene (DPH) as a tool. It was found that the variation of r ss is sensitive enough to monitor different stages of interaction of bile salts with DPPC vesicles. NaDC induced significant changes in the membrane well below its CMC (6 mM). Even at 4 mM, which is still lower than the CMC, the phospholipids were completely solubilised by the NaDC micelles. The effect of NaC on DPPC vesicles, however, was much less significant, especially in the sub-micellar concentration regime. Being more hydrophilic NaC does not interact with the membrane efficiently. Complete solubilisation of phospholipids took place only when the concentration of NaC was above its CMC (16 mM). The experiments also showed that the bile salt-induced changes of vesicle structure were strongly dependent on the concentration of the bile salt and not on the molar ratio of lipid and bile salt.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Blume A and Garidel P 1999 The handbook of thermal analysis and calorimetry, Vol. 4, From macromolecules to man (ed.) R B Kemp (Amsterdam: Elsevier) ch. 4, p. 109

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Marsh D 1996 Handbook of nonmedical application of liposomes (eds) D Lasic and Y Barenholz (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press) vol. 2, ch. 1, p. 1

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Lichtenberg D 1993 Biomembranes — physical aspects (ed.) M Shinitzky (Weinheim: VCH) p. 63

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Carey M C, Small D M and Bliss C M 1983 Annu. Rev. Physiol. 45 651

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Elorza M A, Elorza B and Chantres J R 1997 Int. J. Pharma. 158 173

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Schubert R, Wolburg H, Schmidt K H and Roth H J 1991 Chem. Phys. Lip. 58 121

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Coleman R 1987 Biochem. Soc. Trans. 15 S68

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Hildebrand A, Neubert R, Garidel P and Blume A 2002 Langmuir 18 2836

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Hildebrand A, Beyer K, Neubert R, Garidel P and Blume A 2003 Colloids Surf. B32 335

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    New R R C 1990 Liposomes, a practical approach (New York: Oxford University Press)

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Santos N C, Prieto M and Castanho M A R B 2003 Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1612 123

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Shinitzky M and Barenholz Y 1978 Biochem. Biophys. Acta 515 367

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Glatz P 1978 Anal. Biochem. 87 187

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Kaiser R D and London E 1998 Biochemistry 37 8180

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Chattopadhyay A and London E 1984 Anal. Biochem. 139 408

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Subuddhi U 2006 Fluorescent molecular probes for phospholipid vesicles and bile salt micelles, PhD thesis, Indian Institute of Technology — Madras, Chennai

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Chantres J R, Elorza B, Elorza M A and Rodado P 1996 Int. J. Pharm. 138 139

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Carey M C and Small D M 1972 Arch. Int. Med. 130 506

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Small D M 1971 The bile acids — Chemistry, physiology and metabolism (eds) P P Nair and D Kritchevsky (New York: Plenum) vol. 1, pp 247–354

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Lasch J 1995 Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1241 269

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ashok K Mishra.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Subuddhi, U., Mishra, A.K. Effect of sodium deoxycholate and sodium cholate on DPPC vesicles: A fluorescence anisotropy study with diphenylhexatriene. J Chem Sci 119, 169–174 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12039-007-0024-6

Download citation


  • Bile salt
  • DPPC vesicle
  • fluorescence anisotropy
  • 1,6-diphenylhexatriene