Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of memory and cognitive function. The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose oxidation has been shown to be reduced in AD. The present study evaluated efficacy of dietary Amalaki Rasayana (AR), an Ayurvedic formulation used in Indian traditional system, in AβPP-PS1 mouse model of AD in ameliorating memory and neurometabolism, and compared with donepezil, a standard FDA approved drug for AD. The memory of mice was measured using Morris Water Maze analysis. The cerebral metabolism was followed by 13C labelling of brain amino acids in tissue extracts ex vivo using 1H-[13C]-NMR spectroscopy together with a short time infusion of [1,6-13C2]glucose to mice. The intervention with Amalaki Rasayana showed improved learning and memory in AβPP-PS1 mice. The 13C labelings of GluC4, GABAC2 and GlnC4 were reduced in AβPP-PS1 mice when compared with wild-type controls. Intervention of AR increased the 13C labelling of amino acids suggesting a significant enhancement in glutamatergic and GABAergic metabolic activity in AβPP-PS1 mice similar to that observed with donepezil treatment. These data suggest that AR has potential to improve memory and cognitive function in AD.
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We thank Dr Robin A de Graff, Yale University, for providing the 1H-[13C]-NMR pulse sequence, and Mr Bhargidhar Babu for assistance in animal studies, Dr Swati Maitra for help in carrying out MWM experiments. We thank Prof MS Valiathan for initiating the coordinated studies on Science of Ayurveda, and Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakal (Kerala, India) for providing the Amalaki Rasayana formulation. The Brain and Behavioral Experiment Facility is dully acknowledged for MWM test. All NMR experiments were performed at NMR Microimaging and Spectroscopy Facility, CCMB, Hyderabad, India. This study was supported by grants from the Department of Biotechnology (BT/PR14064/Med/30/359/2010), Department of Science and Technology (AB/013/2013), and CSIR network project BSC0208.
Corresponding editor: Neeraj Jain
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Tiwari, V., Saba, K., Veeraiah, P. et al. Amalaki Rasayana improved memory and neuronal metabolic activity in AβPP-PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. J Biosci 42, 363–371 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12038-017-9692-7
- Alzheimer’s disease
- 13C nuclear magnetic
- neurotransmitter cycle
- resonance spectroscopy