Transcriptional and Epigenetic Control of Mammalian Olfactory Epithelium Development

Abstract

The postnatal mammalian olfactory epithelium (OE) represents a major aspect of the peripheral olfactory system. It is a pseudostratified tissue that originates from the olfactory placode and is composed of diverse cells, some of which are specialized receptor neurons capable of transducing odorant stimuli to afford the perception of smell (olfaction). The OE is known to offer a tractable miniature model for studying the systematic generation of neurons and glia that typify neural tissue development. During OE development, stem/progenitor cells that will become olfactory sensory neurons and/or non-neuronal cell types display fine spatiotemporal expression of neuronal and non-neuronal genes that ensures their proper proliferation, differentiation, survival, and regeneration. Many factors, including transcription and epigenetic factors, have been identified as key regulators of the expression of such requisite genes to permit normal OE morphogenesis. Typically, specific interactive regulatory networks established between transcription and epigenetic factors/cofactors orchestrate histogenesis in the embryonic and adult OE. Hence, investigation of these regulatory networks critical for OE development promises to disclose strategies that may be employed in manipulating the stepwise transition of olfactory precursor cells to become fully differentiated and functional neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. Such strategies potentially offer formidable means of replacing injured or degenerated neural cells as therapeutics for nervous system perturbations. This review recapitulates the developmental cellular diversity of the olfactory neuroepithelium and discusses findings on how the precise and cooperative molecular control by transcriptional and epigenetic machinery is indispensable for OE ontogeny.

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Acknowledgments

We apologize to colleagues whose work was not cited due to unintentional oversight. We thank H. Sebesse for preparing illustrations. This work was supported by the Research Program at the Faculty of Medicine, Georg-August University Göttingen, TU432/1-1, TU432/1-3 DFG grants, DFG-CNMPB, and Schram-Stiftung to TT. The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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GS, EA, JFS, and TT all contributed to writing and editing the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Tran Tuoc.

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Sokpor, G., Abbas, E., Rosenbusch, J. et al. Transcriptional and Epigenetic Control of Mammalian Olfactory Epithelium Development. Mol Neurobiol 55, 8306–8327 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-018-0987-y

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Keywords

  • Olfactory epithelium
  • Olfactory neural stem cell
  • Neurogenesis
  • Transcription factor
  • Chromatin remodeling factor
  • Epigenetic factor