Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 55, Issue 1, pp 335–349 | Cite as

Pro-neurogenic, Memory-Enhancing and Anti-stress Effects of DF302, a Novel Fluorine Gamma-Carboline Derivative with Multi-target Mechanism of Action

  • Tatyana Strekalova
  • Nataliia Bahzenova
  • Alexander Trofimov
  • Angelika G. Schmitt-Böhrer
  • Nataliia Markova
  • Vladimir Grigoriev
  • Vladimir Zamoyski
  • Tatiana Serkova
  • Olga Redkozubova
  • Daria Vinogradova
  • Alexei Umriukhin
  • Vladimir Fisenko
  • Christina Lillesaar
  • Elena Shevtsova
  • Vladimir Sokolov
  • Alexey Aksinenko
  • Klaus-Peter Lesch
  • Sergey Bachurin


A comparative study performed in mice investigating the action of DF302, a novel fluoride-containing gamma-carboline derivative, in comparison to the structurally similar neuroprotective drug dimebon. Drug effects on learning and memory, emotionality, hippocampal neurogenesis and mitochondrial functions, as well as AMPA-mediated currents and the 5-HT6 receptor are reported. In the step-down avoidance and fear-conditioning paradigms, bolus administration of drugs at doses of 10 or 40 mg/kg showed that only the higher dose of DF302 improved long-term memory while dimebon was ineffective at either dosage. Short-term memory and fear extinction remained unaltered across treatment groups. During the 5-day predation stress paradigm, oral drug treatment over a period of 2 weeks at the higher dosage regimen decreased anxiety-like behaviour. Both compounds supressed inter-male aggression in CD1 mice, the most eminent being the effects of DF302 in its highest dose. DF302 at the higher dose decreased floating behaviour in a 2-day swim test and after 21-day ultrasound stress. The density of Ki67-positive cells, a marker of adult neurogenesis, was reduced in the dentate gyrus of stressed dimebon-treated and non-treated mice, but not in DF302-treated mice. Non-stressed mice that received DF302 had a higher density of Ki67-positive cells than controls unlike dimebon-treated mice. Similar to dimebon, DF302 effectively potentiated AMPA receptor-mediated currents, bound to the 5-HT6 receptor, inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition and displayed cytoprotective properties in cellular models of neurodegeneration. Thus, DF302 exerts multi-target effects on the key mechanisms of neurodegenerative pathologies and can be considered as an optimized novel analogue of the neuroprotective agent dimebon.


Alzheimer’s disease Multi-target mechanisms Hippocampal plasticity AMPA receptor 5-HT6 receptor Stress and depression Aggression 



This work was primarily supported by the Russian Science Foundation grant #14-23-00160P. The DF302 compound and model agent dimebon were synthesized in frames of the IPAC Research Program Framework. Behavioural and immunohistochemical assays have been conducted with the support of the European Community EC: AGGRESSOTYPE FP7/No.602805, and the 5-100 Russian Academic Excellence Project.

Supplementary material

12035_2017_745_MOESM1_ESM.docx (63 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 62 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tatyana Strekalova
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Nataliia Bahzenova
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  • Alexander Trofimov
    • 1
    • 6
  • Angelika G. Schmitt-Böhrer
    • 7
  • Nataliia Markova
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
    • 6
  • Vladimir Grigoriev
    • 6
  • Vladimir Zamoyski
    • 6
  • Tatiana Serkova
    • 6
  • Olga Redkozubova
    • 6
  • Daria Vinogradova
    • 6
  • Alexei Umriukhin
    • 4
    • 8
  • Vladimir Fisenko
    • 4
  • Christina Lillesaar
    • 9
  • Elena Shevtsova
    • 6
  • Vladimir Sokolov
    • 6
  • Alexey Aksinenko
    • 6
  • Klaus-Peter Lesch
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sergey Bachurin
    • 6
  1. 1.Division of Molecular Psychiatry, Center of Mental HealthUniversity of WürzburgWürzburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of Translational Neuroscience, School for Mental Health and NeuroscienceMaastricht UniversityMaastrichtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Laboratory of Psychiatric Neurobiology, Institute of Molecular MedicineI.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical UniversityMoscowRussia
  4. 4.I.M. Sechenov Moscow State Medical UniversityMoscowRussia
  5. 5.Laboratory of Cognitive DysfunctionsInstitute of General Pathology and PathophysiologyMoscowRussia
  6. 6.Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Physiologically Active CompoundsRussian Academy of SciencesMoscow RegionRussia
  7. 7.Center of Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and PsychotherapyUniversity of WürzburgWürzburgGermany
  8. 8.Department of Normal PhysiologyI.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical UniversityMoscowRussia
  9. 9.Department of Physiological Chemistry, Biocenter, Am HublandUniversity of WürzburgWürzburgGermany

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