The Lesion Analysis of Cholinergic Neurons in 5XFAD Mouse Model in the Three-Dimensional Level of Whole Brain
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Cholinergic system is very important for many higher brain functions, including learning and memory. Cholinergic neurons, especially those in the basal forebrain, are specifically susceptible in some neurodegenerative diseases, such as in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we studied the cholinergic system lesion effects of five familial AD mutations in 5XFAD mice, a transgenic mouse model of AD. Although the cholinergic system has been studied in this mouse model, the cholinergic deficits in AD mice have never been systematically mapped in a whole-brain three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. Using the 3D reconstruction technology combined with immunohistochemistry (3D-IHC) and design-based stereology, we comprehensively compared the differences of the cholinergic neurons and fibers between the 5XFAD mice and C57BL/6 control mice at different age. Here, we found that the lesion of cholinergic fibers occurred earlier than the cholinergic neuron loss in 5XFAD mice. The cholinergic fiber lesions in the AD mice started sequentially in amygdala, cortex, hippocampus, and then basal forebrain. However, the basal forebrain was the first brain region observed with cholinergic neuron loss at the age of 9 months in 5XFAD mice, whereas such phenomenon first occurred at the age of 15 months in C57BL/6 control mice. Moreover, using 3D reconstruction to compare the lesion of cholinergic system of aged 5XFAD and C57BL/6 control mice, it is intuitive to notice the pathologic regions and severity of lesion. Therefore, the 3D-IHC provides detailed overview of the cholinergic neurons in the whole mouse brain, which will contribute to the study of the developing and pathologic mouse brain.
KeywordsAlzheimer’s disease 5XFAD mouse model Cholinergic neurons Three dimension Whole brain
We gratefully acknowledge Dr. Qing Tian, Dr. Linqiang Zhu, and Dr. Juan Chen for their helpful discussion and suggestions; Jiaming Liang for the image alignment code; and Shaohua Zhang for the assistance with equipment maintenance. This study was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 81130079, 91232302, 81571078, and 3160047).
Y.L. conceived and designed the study. H.Y. and P.P. did the work of immunohistochemistry and three-dimensional reconstruction of cholinergic neurons. W.C., H.Z., H.L., Z.W., X.K., and J.W. conducted the counting work of cholinergic neurons and cholinergic lesions. T.Z. and K.P. conducted the statistical work. H.Y., L.P., Y.H., H.K., and Y.L. wrote the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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