Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 55, Issue 5, pp 3866–3874 | Cite as

Manganese(II) Chloride Alters Nucleotide and Nucleoside Catabolism in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Adult Brain

  • Stefani Altenhofen
  • Débora Dreher Nabinger
  • Talita Carneiro Brandão Pereira
  • Carlos Eduardo Leite
  • Maurício Reis Bogo
  • Carla Denise Bonan


ATP and adenosine, the main signaling molecules of purinergic system, are involved in toxicological effects induced by metals. The manganese (Mn) exposure induces several cellular changes, which could interfere with signaling pathways, such as the purinergic system. In this study, we evaluated the effects of exposure to manganese(II) chloride (MnCl2) during 96 h on nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase), ecto-5′-nucleotidase, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities, followed by analyzing the gene expression patterns of NTPDases (entpd1, entpd2a.1, entpd2a.2, entpd2-like, entpd3) and ADA (ADA 1 , ADA 2.1 , ADA 2.2 , ADAasi, ADAL) families in zebrafish brain. In addition, the brain metabolism of nucleotides and nucleosides was evaluated after MnCl2 exposure. The results showed that MnCl2 exposure during 96 h inhibited the NTPDase (1.0 and 1.5 mM) and ecto-ADA (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM) activities, further decreasing ADA2.1 expression at all MnCl2 concentrations analyzed. Purine metabolism was also altered by the action of MnCl2. An increased amount of ADP appeared at all MnCl2 concentrations analyzed; however, AMP and adenosine levels are decreased at the concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5 mM MnCl2, whereas decreased inosine (INO) levels were observed at all concentrations tested. The findings of this study demonstrated that MnCl2 may inhibit NTPDase and ecto-ADA activities, consequently modulating nucleotide and nucleoside levels, which may contribute for the toxicological effects induced by this metal.


Adenosine deaminase Manganese(II) chloride NTPDases Purinergic signaling Zebrafish 



This work was supported by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) (Proc. 446025/2014-3). S.A., D.D.N., and T.C.B.P. were the recipient of a fellowship from Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES). M.R.B and C.D.B were recipients of a fellowship from CNPq.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefani Altenhofen
    • 1
  • Débora Dreher Nabinger
    • 1
  • Talita Carneiro Brandão Pereira
    • 2
  • Carlos Eduardo Leite
    • 3
  • Maurício Reis Bogo
    • 2
  • Carla Denise Bonan
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculdade de Biociências, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular, Laboratório de Neuroquímica e PsicofarmacologiaPUCRSPorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Faculdade de Biociências, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular, Laboratório de Biologia Genômica e MolecularPUCRSPorto AlegreBrazil
  3. 3.Instituto de Toxicologia e FarmacologiaPUCRSPorto AlegreBrazil
  4. 4.Laboratório de Neuroquímica e Psicofarmacologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular, Faculdade de BiociênciasPontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil

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