Protein Profile and Morphological Alterations in Penumbra after Focal Photothrombotic Infarction in the Rat Cerebral Cortex

Abstract

After ischemic stroke, cell damage propagates from infarct core to surrounding tissues (penumbra). To reveal proteins involved in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection in penumbra, we studied protein expression changes in 2-mm ring around the core of photothrombotic infarct induced in the rat brain cortex by local laser irradiation after administration of Bengal Rose. The ultrastructural study showed edema and degeneration of neurons, glia, and capillaries. Morphological changes gradually decreased across the penumbra. Using the antibody microarrays, we studied changes in expression of >200 neuronal proteins in penumbra 4 or 24 h after focal photothrombotic infarct. Diverse cellular subsystems were involved in the penumbra tissue response: signal transduction pathways such as protein kinase Bα/GSK-3, protein kinase C and its β1 and β2 isoforms, Wnt/β-catenin (axin1, GSK-3, FRAT1), Notch/NUMB, DYRK1A, TDP43; mitochondria quality control (Pink1, parkin, HtrA2); ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis (ubiquilin-1, UCHL1); axon outgrowth and guidance (NAV-3, CRMP2, PKCβ2); vesicular trafficking (syntaxin-8, TMP21, Munc-18-3, synip, ALS2, VILIP1, syntaxin, synaptophysin, synaptotagmin); biosynthesis of neuromediators (tryptophan hydroxylase, monoamine oxidase B, glutamate decarboxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase, DOPA decarboxylase, dopamine transporter); intercellular interactions (N-cadherin, PMP22); cytoskeleton (neurofilament 68, neurofilament-M, doublecortin); and other proteins (LRP1, prion protein, β-amyloid). These proteins are involved in neurodegeneration or neuroprotection. Such changes were most expressed 4 h after photothrombotic impact. Immunohistochemical and Western blot studies of expression of monoamine oxidase B, UCHL1, DYRK1A, and Munc-18-3 confirmed the proteomic data. These data provide the integral view on the penumbra response to photothrombotic infarct. Some of these proteins can be potential targets for ischemic stroke therapy.

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Acknowledgments

The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grant 14-15-00068). A.B. Uzdensky work was also supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation (grant “Science organization” #790). The authors used the equipment of the Center for Collective Use of Southern Federal University “High technology” supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation (project RFMEFI59414X0002).

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Correspondence to Anatoly Uzdensky.

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Uzdensky, A., Demyanenko, S., Fedorenko, G. et al. Protein Profile and Morphological Alterations in Penumbra after Focal Photothrombotic Infarction in the Rat Cerebral Cortex. Mol Neurobiol 54, 4172–4188 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-016-9964-5

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Keywords

  • Stroke
  • Penumbra
  • Photothrombotic infarct
  • Proteomics
  • Ultrastructure
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Neuroprotection