Altered Long Noncoding RNA Expression Precedes the Course of Parkinson’s Disease—a Preliminary Report
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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative disorder that affects approximately seven million patients worldwide. Despite intensive research, the molecular mechanisms initiating and promoting PD are still unknown. However, it is assumed that environmental factors trigger PD. Recent research demonstrated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) interfere in transcriptional and translational processes modulating gene expression reflecting environmental influences. Nevertheless, there is no systematic analysis available that investigates the impact of lncRNAs on PD. In the current study, we performed a comprehensive analysis on expression levels of 90 well-annotated lncRNAs in 30 brain specimens deriving from 20 PD patients and 10 controls as a preliminary report on the significance of lncRNAs in PD. Expression profiling of lncRNAs revealed that five lncRNAs are significantly differentially expressed in PD. While H19 upstream conserved 1 and 2 is significantly downregulated in PD, lincRNA-p21, Malat1, SNHG1, and TncRNA are significantly upregulated. An analysis on expression levels and PD stages revealed that the identified dysregulated lncRNA are altered already in early disease stage and that they precede the course of PD. In summary, this is the first comprehensive analysis on lncRNAs in PD revealing significantly altered lncRNAs. Additionally, we found that lncRNA dysregulations precede the course of the disease. Thus, the five newly identified lncRNAs may serve as potential new biomarkers appropriate even in early PD. They may be used in monitoring disease progression and they may serve as potential new targets for novel therapeutic approaches.
KeywordsParkinson’s disease PD Long noncoding RNA lncRNA Human brain tissue
We thank the Neurobiobank Munich (Thomas Arzberger) for providing human brain tissue.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This work was supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) through the EpiPD (Epigenomics of Parkinson’s disease) project, under the auspices of the bilateral BMBF/ANR (French National Research Agency) Epigenomics of Common and Age-related Diseases Programme (grant no. 01KU1403B to TFJK and HAK) and by the BMBF through the Integrated Network IntegraMent (Integrated Understanding of Causes and Mechanisms in Mental Disorders), under the auspices of the e:Med Programme (grant no. 01ZX1314I to TFJK and HAK).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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