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Dietary Patterns and Risk of Dementia: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies

Abstract

Dietary patterns and some dietary components have been linked with dementia. We therefore performed a meta-analysis of available studies to determine whether there is an association between diet and risk of dementia. We included eligible articles and estimated risk ratio (RR) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs). Finally, there were 43 trials that met the inclusion standard. Some food intake was related with decrease of dementia, such as unsaturated fatty acids (RR: 0.84, 95 % CI: [0.74–0.95], P = 0.006), antioxidants (RR: 0.87, 95 % CI: [0.77–0.98], P = 0.026), vitamin B (RR: 0.72, 95 % CI: [0.54–0.96], P = 0.026), and the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) (RR: 0.69, 95 % CI: [0.57–0.84], P < 0.001). Some material intakes were related with increase of dementia, such as aluminum (RR: 2.24, 95 % CI: [1.49–3.37], P < 0.001), smoking (RR: 1.43, 95 % CI: [1.15–1.77], P = 0.001), and low levels of vitamin D (RR: 1.52, 95 % CI: [1.17–1.98], P = 0.002). The effect of some materials needs further investigation, such as fish (RR: 0.79, 95 % CI: [0.59–1.06], P = 0.113), vegetables and fruits (RR: 0.46, 95 % CI: [0.16–1.32], P = 0.149), and alcohol (RR: 0.74, 95 % CI: [0.55- 1.01], P = 0.056). Thus, the MeDi and higher consumption of unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and B vitamins decrease the risk of dementia while smoking and higher consumption of aluminum increase the risk of dementia. Low levels of vitamin D were associated with cognitive decline. The effect of fish, vegetables, fruits, and alcohol needs further investigation. The findings will be of great significance to guide people to prevent dementia.

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Acknowledgments

This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81471309, 81371406, 81171209), the Shandong Provincial Outstanding Medical Academic Professional Program, Qingdao Key Health Discipline Development Fund, and Qingdao Outstanding Health Professional Development Fund.

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Correspondence to Lan Tan or Jin-Tai Yu.

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Cao, L., Tan, L., Wang, HF. et al. Dietary Patterns and Risk of Dementia: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies. Mol Neurobiol 53, 6144–6154 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-015-9516-4

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Keywords

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Dementia
  • Dietary patterns
  • Diet
  • The Mediterranean diet
  • Meta-analysis