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The Emerging Role of Autoimmunity in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/cfs)

Abstract

The World Health Organization classifies myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/cfs) as a nervous system disease. Together with other diseases under the G93 heading, ME/cfs shares a triad of abnormalities involving elevated oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), activation of immuno-inflammatory pathways, and mitochondrial dysfunctions with depleted levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. There is also abundant evidence that many patients with ME/cfs (up to around 60 %) may suffer from autoimmune responses. A wide range of reported abnormalities in ME/cfs are highly pertinent to the generation of autoimmunity. Here we review the potential sources of autoimmunity which are observed in people with ME/cfs. The increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and increased levels of nuclear factor-κB predispose to an autoimmune environment. Many cytokine abnormalities conspire to produce a predominance of effector B cells and autoreactive T cells. The common observation of reduced natural killer cell function in ME/cfs is a source of disrupted homeostasis and prolonged effector T cell survival. B cells may be pathogenic by playing a role in autoimmunity independent of their ability to produce antibodies. The chronic or recurrent viral infections seen in many patients with ME/cfs can induce autoimmunity by mechanisms involving molecular mimicry and bystander activation. Increased bacterial translocation, as observed in ME/cfs, is known to induce chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Low ATP production and mitochondrial dysfunction is a source of autoimmunity by inhibiting apoptosis and stimulating necrotic cell death. Self-epitopes may be damaged by exposure to prolonged O&NS, altering their immunogenic profile and become a target for the host’s immune system. Nitric oxide may induce many faces of autoimmunity stemming from elevated mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization and blockade of the methionine cycle with subsequent hypomethylation of DNA. Here we also outline options for treatment involving rituximab and endotherapia.

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Conflict of Interest

MB has received grant/research support from the NIH, Cooperative Research Centre, Simons Autism Foundation, Cancer Council of Victoria, Stanley Medical Research Foundation, MBF, NHMRC, Beyond Blue, Rotary Health, Geelong Medical Research Foundation, Bristol Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Glaxo SmithKline, Meat and Livestock Board, Organon, Novartis, MaynePharma, Servier, and Woolworths; has been a speaker for Astra Zeneca, Bristol Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Glaxo SmithKline, Janssen Cilag, Lundbeck, Merck, Pfizer, SanofiSynthelabo, Servier, Solvay, and Wyeth; and served as a consultant to Astra Zeneca, Bristol Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Glaxo SmithKline, Janssen Cilag, Lundbeck Merck, and Servier. The other authors do not report any conflicts of interest.

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Correspondence to Michael Maes.

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Morris, G., Berk, M., Galecki, P. et al. The Emerging Role of Autoimmunity in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/cfs). Mol Neurobiol 49, 741–756 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-013-8553-0

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-013-8553-0

Keywords

  • Inflammation
  • Oxidative and nitrosative stress
  • Cytokines
  • Autoimmune
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Myalgic encephalomyelitis