Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 49, Issue 2, pp 741–756 | Cite as

The Emerging Role of Autoimmunity in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/cfs)

  • Gerwyn Morris
  • Michael Berk
  • Piotr Galecki
  • Michael Maes
Article

Abstract

The World Health Organization classifies myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/cfs) as a nervous system disease. Together with other diseases under the G93 heading, ME/cfs shares a triad of abnormalities involving elevated oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), activation of immuno-inflammatory pathways, and mitochondrial dysfunctions with depleted levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. There is also abundant evidence that many patients with ME/cfs (up to around 60 %) may suffer from autoimmune responses. A wide range of reported abnormalities in ME/cfs are highly pertinent to the generation of autoimmunity. Here we review the potential sources of autoimmunity which are observed in people with ME/cfs. The increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and increased levels of nuclear factor-κB predispose to an autoimmune environment. Many cytokine abnormalities conspire to produce a predominance of effector B cells and autoreactive T cells. The common observation of reduced natural killer cell function in ME/cfs is a source of disrupted homeostasis and prolonged effector T cell survival. B cells may be pathogenic by playing a role in autoimmunity independent of their ability to produce antibodies. The chronic or recurrent viral infections seen in many patients with ME/cfs can induce autoimmunity by mechanisms involving molecular mimicry and bystander activation. Increased bacterial translocation, as observed in ME/cfs, is known to induce chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Low ATP production and mitochondrial dysfunction is a source of autoimmunity by inhibiting apoptosis and stimulating necrotic cell death. Self-epitopes may be damaged by exposure to prolonged O&NS, altering their immunogenic profile and become a target for the host’s immune system. Nitric oxide may induce many faces of autoimmunity stemming from elevated mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization and blockade of the methionine cycle with subsequent hypomethylation of DNA. Here we also outline options for treatment involving rituximab and endotherapia.

Keywords

Inflammation Oxidative and nitrosative stress Cytokines Autoimmune Chronic fatigue syndrome Myalgic encephalomyelitis 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerwyn Morris
    • 1
  • Michael Berk
    • 2
    • 3
  • Piotr Galecki
    • 4
    • 5
  • Michael Maes
    • 2
    • 6
  1. 1.Mumbles HeadLlanelliUK
  2. 2.Impact Strategic Research Center, School of MedicineDeakin UniversityGeelongAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry, Orygen Youth Health, Centre for Youth Mental Health and the Florey Institute for Neuroscience and Mental HealthUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Adult PsychiatryMedical University of ŁódźŁódźPoland
  5. 5.Babinski Memorial HospitalŁódźPoland
  6. 6.Department of PsychiatryChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand

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