Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 883–903 | Cite as

Coenzyme Q10 Depletion in Medical and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Potential Repercussions and Therapeutic Implications

  • Gerwyn Morris
  • George Anderson
  • Michael Berk
  • Michael Maes
Article

Abstract

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an antioxidant, a membrane stabilizer, and a vital cofactor in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, enabling the generation of adenosine triphosphate. It additionally regulates gene expression and apoptosis; is an essential cofactor of uncoupling proteins; and has anti-inflammatory, redox modulatory, and neuroprotective effects. This paper reviews the known physiological role of CoQ10 in cellular metabolism, cell death, differentiation and gene regulation, and examines the potential repercussions of CoQ10 depletion including its role in illnesses such as Parkinson’s disease, depression, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia. CoQ10 depletion may play a role in the pathophysiology of these disorders by modulating cellular processes including hydrogen peroxide formation, gene regulation, cytoprotection, bioenegetic performance, and regulation of cellular metabolism. CoQ10 treatment improves quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease and may play a role in delaying the progression of that disorder. Administration of CoQ10 has antidepressive effects. CoQ10 treatment significantly reduces fatigue and improves ergonomic performance during exercise and thus may have potential in alleviating the exercise intolerance and exhaustion displayed by people with myalgic encepholamyletis/chronic fatigue syndrome. Administration of CoQ10 improves hyperalgesia and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia. The evidence base for the effectiveness of treatment with CoQ10 may be explained via its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress and protect mitochondria.

Keywords

Coenzyme Q10 Oxidative and nitrosative stress Inflammation Cytokines Mitochondria 

Abbreviations

CoQ10

Coenzyme Q10

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

O&NS

Oxidative and nitrosative stress

NF-κB

Nuclear factor-κB

MDA

Malondialdehyde

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

ME/CFS

Myalgic encepholamyletis/chronic fatigue syndrome

PD

Parkinson’s disease

NO

Nitric oxide

BH4

Tetrahydrobiopterin

PUFAs

Poly-unsaturated fatty acids

UPS

Ubiquitin–proteasome system

4HNE

4-Hydroxynonenal

PGC-1α

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma co-activator-1 alpha

UCP

Uncoupler protein

Nrf2

Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2

ARE

Antioxidant response element

mtDNA

Mitochondrial DNA

NRF1/2

Nuclear respiratory factor 1/2

(TNF)α

Tumor necrosis factor

(C-X-C-motif)

Chemokine

IL

Interleukin

n-SMase

Neutral-sphingomyelinase

CVD

Cardiovascular disorder

Kfor

Forward rate constant

UPDRS

Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerwyn Morris
    • 1
  • George Anderson
    • 2
  • Michael Berk
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Michael Maes
    • 3
    • 7
  1. 1.LlanelliUK
  2. 2.CRC Clinical Research Centre/CommunicationsGlasgowUK
  3. 3.School of MedicineDeakin UniversityGeelongAustralia
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia
  5. 5.Orygen Youth Health Research CentreParkvilleAustralia
  6. 6.Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental HealthUniversity of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia
  7. 7.Department of PsychiatryChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand

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