Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 186–199 | Cite as

Melatonin as a Neuroprotective Agent in the Rodent Models of Parkinson’s Disease: Is it All Set to Irrefutable Clinical Translation?

  • Naveen Kumar Singhal
  • Garima Srivastava
  • Sonal Agrawal
  • Swatantra Kumar Jain
  • Mahendra Pratap SinghEmail author


Parkinson’s disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the selective degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, continuing or permanent deficiency of dopamine, accretion of an abnormal form of alpha synuclein in the adjacent neurons, and dysregulation of ubiquitin proteasomal system, mitochondrial metabolism, permeability and integrity, and cellular apoptosis resulting in rigidity, bradykinesia, resting tremor, and postural instability. Melatonin, an indoleamine produced almost in all the organisms, has anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-oxidant nature. Experimental studies employing 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), methamphetamine, rotenone, and maneb and paraquat models have shown an enormous potential of melatonin in amelioration of the symptomatic features of PD. Although a few reviews published previously have described the multifaceted efficacy of melatonin against MPTP and 6-OHDA rodent models, due to development and validation of the newer models as well as the extensive studies on the usage of melatonin in entrenched PD models, it is worthwhile to bring up to date note on the usage of melatonin as a neuroprotective agent in PD. This article presents an update on the usage and applications of melatonin in PD models along with incongruous observations. The impending implications in the clinics, success, limitations, and future prospective have also been discussed in this article.


Parkinson’s disease Melatonin Rodent models Neuroprotection 



The authors acknowledge the University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi for providing research fellowships to Naveen Kumar Singhal, Garima Srivastava, and Sonal Agrawal, respectively. The IITR communication number of this article is 2968.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naveen Kumar Singhal
    • 1
  • Garima Srivastava
    • 1
  • Sonal Agrawal
    • 1
  • Swatantra Kumar Jain
    • 2
  • Mahendra Pratap Singh
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research)LucknowIndia
  2. 2.Jamia HamdardNew DelhiIndia

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