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Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 61–75 | Cite as

Activity Regulation of Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA (ADARs)

  • Cesare Orlandi
  • Alessandro Barbon
  • Sergio Barlati
Article

Abstract

Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are the enzymes that are responsible for the A to I RNA editing process in mammals, which is an important mechanism that increases molecular diversity. A to I RNA editing consists of an enzymatic conversion of specific adenosine in pre-mRNA, leading to alteration of the properties of both the RNA itself and the translated protein. Currently, the importance of this phenomenon is increasingly recognized as it affects a diverse set of cellular pathways. ADAR function within the cell, especially in the neurons, is to diversify the features of a limited set of unique transcripts, mostly neurotransmitter receptors; however, a growing set of target is going to be discovered, increasing the importance of the RNA editing event in the proper physiology of the cell. Despite the functional relevance of these enzymes, there is a gap of knowledge in the mechanisms that regulate ADAR activity and consequently about the modulation of RNA editing process. This review summarizes ongoing investigations of ADAR regulation at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational level and addresses new hypothetical mechanisms that are capable of modulating ADAR activity, including subcellular localization, dimerization and interaction with trans-acting factors.

Keywords

ADAR1 ADAR2 ADAR3 RNA editing Post-transcriptional regulation Post-translational regulation 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by Grants from MIUR (PRIN 2009BRMW4W) and by NEDD project Regione Lombardia (ID 14546-A SAL7). We would like to thank the “Nature Publishing Group Language Editing” for revising the manuscript.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cesare Orlandi
    • 1
  • Alessandro Barbon
    • 1
  • Sergio Barlati
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Biology and Genetics, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Biotechnology and National Institute of NeuroscienceUniversity of BresciaBresciaItaly

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